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Demand Analysis of Individuation Pine Resources for Fine Chemical Utilization of Pine Oleoresin
Zhendong ZHAO, Jing WANG, Yanju LU, Yuxiang CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 1-10.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.001
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Desirable pine resources are the basis for the sustainable, high value-added and fine chemical utilization of pine oleoresin. According to the chemical composition and structural characteristics of pine oleoresin, combined with the analysis of the current situation of pine oleoresin resources as well as their deep processing and utilization industries, the demand for individuation pine resources is discussed from the perspective of fine utilization. By the perspectives of production, processing, utilization and benefits, intensive high-quality pine oleoresin resources are needed, which have strong oleoresin exudation, long-lasting resinosis, good quality, and easy processability. And by the perspective of deep processing and utilization, individuation oleoresin resources are needed further, which have higher quality, more useful, more balanced or more outstanding specific components. To research and breed individuation pine resources such as pimaric-type rosin, isopimaric-type rosin, mercusic-type rosin, α-pinene-type turpentine, β-pinene-type turpentine, 3-carene-type turpentine, β-phellandrene-type turpentine and longifolene-type heavy turpentine, are scientifically important and applicably valuable for the fine chemical utilization, high value-added deep processing of rosin and turpentine. It is recommended to focus on the main oleoresin-tapping pine species such as P. massoniana, P. kesiya var. langbianensis, P. elliottii, P. elliottii×P. caribaea, P. latteri Mason, etc., and carry out more integrative and interdisciplinary researches on oleoresin chemistry, fine chemicals, genomics, metabolomics, genetic breeding, resource cultivation, and chemical engineering of forest products.

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Progress of Research on CO 2 Adsorption by Porous Carbon Materials
Yuhang ZHANG, Wei LI, Chunhui MA, Sha LUO, Shouxin LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 107-122.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.015
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Global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions is a pressing environmental problem. Given that CO2 is the most significant greenhouse gas, research into materials that can efficiently adsorb CO2 has attracted considerable attention. Compared with other adsorption materials, porous materials offer a large specific surface area with high chemical and thermal stabilities and also feature good adsorption capacity, selectivity, cyclicity, and fast adsorption kinetics; therefore, they are widely used as solid adsorbents for CO2 capture. This review systematically introduces five types of porous carbon materials coal/petroleum-coke-activated carbons, biomass porous carbons, carbon aerogels, metal-organic-framework-derived carbons, and carbon nanomaterials that have been developed in recent years. Furthermore, the four primary methods used to prepare these materials for CO2 adsorption (i.e., high temperature carbonization and activation, hydrothermal carbonization, sol-gel processing and the template method) are presented. Emphasis is placed on their structure-performance relationship with CO2 adsorption. Simultaneously, the mechanism whereby CO2 is adsorbed by porous carbons with a pore texture is reviewed, in addition to the surface chemistry. Lastly, current challenges pertaining to CO2 adsorption are summarized, and future development trends are also prospected.

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Determination of Deprotonation Characteristics of Tannic Acid by Potential Titration Method
Liangliang ZHANG, He ZHANG, Man XU, Xinyu HU, Yiwen LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.001
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The deprotonation process of a typical tannic acid, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose(PGG), and its parent compound methyl gallate(MeG) was studied by pH potentiometric titration and spectrophotography. The dissociation constants of PGG and MeG were calculated by chemometric methods using the Reactlab Equilibrium software. Concentration profiles of the fully protonated PGG and its two deprotonated forms at different pH values were also predicted by the chemometric method. The results showed that the deprotonation of phenolic hydroxyl of PGG was found with the increasing of pH value, and fully deprotonated forms of PGG existed at pH>11. These formed negative ions of oxygen can further coordinate with metal ions. Spectroscopic studies showed that there were two deprotonated forms of PGG, and the corresponding pKa values were 10.84±0.03 and 10.62±0.02. There was only one deprotonated form of MeG during titration, and the corresponding pKa value was 9.68±0.02.

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Progress on Lignocellulose-based Magnetic Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions
Xuan ZHOU, Can JIN, Guifeng LIU, Shuping HUO, Guomin WU, Zhenwu KONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 123-132.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.016
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Pollution by heavy metals is a serious environmental problem. Lignocellulose offers the advantages of high-capacity storage, renewability, and biodegradability, while offering excellent adsorption performance and being easy to recycle. As such, it is being increasingly used as a magnetic adsorbent for the removal of metal ions from polluted water. Starting with a brief description of magnetic nanomaterials, this review focuses on the preparation of cellulose-, lignin-, and hemicellulose-based magnetic adsorption materials, both domestically and overseas, summarizing and comparing their abilities to adsorb different heavymetal ions. In addition, the adsorption abilities and factors influencing the removal of different heavy metal ions are discussed in detail. Finally, future development directionsfor lignocellulose-based magnetic adsorbents are discussed.

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Research Progress of Hydrophobic Modification of Nanocellulose
Lingyuan WANG, Lanfeng HUI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 125-133.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.016
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Nanocellulose is a kind of nano-sized cellulose extracted from natural cellulose. It not only has the basic characteristics of cellulose, but also has large specific surface area, unique strength and optical properties originated from nano-size. However, the presence of free hydroxyl groups in cellulose is hydrophilic, which reduces the stiffness of nanocellulose materials in humid environments and limits its application fields. Therefore, hydrophobic modification of nanocellulose can expand its scope of application. This article reviewed the methods of hydrophobic modification of nanocellulose in recent years, including physical adsorption modification, esterification/acetylation modification, graft copolymerization, silane coupling agent modification, etc., and summarized the research results of the above methods, as well as the advantages and disadvantages. And the future development direction was prospected in order to provide reference for hydrophobic modification research.

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Preparation of Xylooligosaccharides and Monosaccharides from Bamboo Chips by Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment
Yunni ZHAN, Chen HUANG, Xin HAO, Zimeng WANG, Yongjun DENG, Guigan FANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 77-84.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.011
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Effects of liquid hot water pretreatment(LHWP) on the chemical composition, enzymatic digestibility, and xylooligosaccharides(XOS)concentration were investigated in Bambusa emeiensis. In addition, the physical and chemical structural variationsof thesamples before and after the pretreatment were studied using a X-ray diffraction(XRD)spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR). Results indicated that the xylan content was significantly decreased after LHWP, while the contents of glucan and lignin increasing accordingly. LHWP improved the enzymatic digestibility of the bamboo chips feedstock, and the enzymatic hydrolysis yield reached the maximum of 79.0%(glucan) and 92.0%(xylan) at a pretreatment intensity coefficiency of 4.50. However, the XOS concentration reached the maximum value(8.7 g/L)at an intensity coefficiency of 3.96(relative mass percentage of 55.3%), and decreased thereafter as the pretreatment strength was further increased. Finally only 0.5 g/L(relative mass percentage of 3.1%)XOS was obtained in the pretreatment prehydrolysate at an intensity coefficiency of 4.50.

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Aromatic Chemicals Produced by Hydrogenolysis of Lignin Extracted from Phyllostachys heterocycla Hydrolysis Residues
Yi CHENG, Yixin QU, Sheng YANG, Kang ZHUANG, Jidong WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 60-66.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.009
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Two kinds of lignin were extracted from moso bamboo(Phyllostachys heterocycla) hydrolysis residue by hydrogen peroxide method and methanol method. The process of catalytic reductive hydrogenolysis was investigated. The results of two kinds of lignin conversion and product distribution were compared at the same reaction temperature and reaction time. Meanwhile, the optimal conditions of hydrogen peroxide lignin conversion were optimized. When the reaction temperature was 220 ℃, the reaction time was 60 min, lignin extracted by hydrogen peroxide could be converted entirely into soluble substance, and the monomer yield was 14.85%. The soluble substance yield of lignin extracted by methanol method was 96.8%, the monomer yield was 7.13%. The results showed that the conversion efficiency of hydrogen peroxide lignin to aromatic chemicals was higher than that of methanol lignin at reductive hydrogenolysis. The reductive hydrogenolysis process restored the benzoquinone of hydrogen peroxide lignin to the aromatic structure. The side chains in the product were mainly carbonyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, and alkane groups.

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Effect of Post-harvest Treatment on the Product Quality of Chinese Gallnut
Wenwen ZHANG, Kun LI, Baoshan TANG, Pinde ZHANG, Yiwen LIU, Hong ZHANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 29-37.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.005
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The effects of two pretreatments, steam blanching(SB) and boiling water blanching(BWB), on fresh Chinese gallnuts were studied. After the pretreatment, oven drying(OD), fluidized bed drying(FBD), natural drying(ND), and ultraviolet irradiation(UVI) were selected to dry gallnuts and the effects of the four drying methods on the quality of the gallnut products were investigated.The results showed that: after two pretreatments, the moisture content and tannic acid content of the gallnut products decreased, especially after steam blanching, which resulted in a decrease in the moisture content to 47.68%, which was significantly different from that of untreated gallnut(55.77%). Heat treatment reduced the tannic acid content, while the gallic acid content in the dried gallnuts increased. The tannic acid content of ND gallnut was 50.12%-56.84%, and the gallic acid content was 0.29%-0.46%. After oven drying, the tannic acid content in the gallnuts decreased to 32.48%-42.43%, while the gallic acid content was as high as 2.97%-4.39%; different post-harvest treatments had different effects on the quality of the products. Boiling water blanching or steam blanching combined with ultraviolet irradiation could increase the drying rate of gallnuts and had little effect on the tannin content of the products. Oven drying and fluidized bed drying could reduce the drying time to less than 5 h, but the tannic acid content(32%-43%) in the obtained gallnut products was also reduced significantly; ND after pretreatment could maintain the original structure of tannin, but the drying time was more than 200 h.Therefore, the post-harvest treatment of fresh gallnut could be selected according to the actual operating conditions and its applications. Industries should pay more attention to drying efficiency when choosing the treatments of gallnuts; a combination of steam blanching and fluidized bed drying is more preferred.

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Effect of Temperature on Curing Performance of Lignin-based Phenolic Resin Fibers
Xin LI, Yu REN, Jianxiang LIU, Zhengjun SHI, Zhifeng ZHENG, Can LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (2): 33-38.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.02.005
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In order to study the influence of temperature factors on the properties of lignin phenolic resin fiber, different heating rates and curing reaction temperatures were set under the curing bath condition with the hydrochloric acid/formaldehyde mass ratio of 1:1. The properties of the cured materials were characterized by FT-IR, TG, DSC, and mechanical property test. The effects of different temperatures on the mechanical properties, thermal properties and surface morphology of the fibers were investigated, and the curing behavior of lignin phenolic fibers was studied. The results showed that the internal materials continued to cross-link and the diameter of the cured fibers was thicker than that of the raw fibers after curing. The degree of curing reaction and the thermal stability increased with the increase of heating rate. Too fast heating rate led to the decrease of mechanical properties. The higher the curing temperature was, the smoother the surface of lignin phenolic fiber was. The mechanical properties of the fibers decreased with the increase of curing temperature. The most suitable curing temperature factors were the curing heating rate of 20 ℃/h and curing temperature of 170 ℃. Under these conditions, the tensile strength of the cured fiber was 178.24 MPa, and the elongation at break was 1.49%.

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Oil Cell Morphology, Essential Oil Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum Leaves Harvested in Spring and Autumn
Xian CHENG, Liangwu BI, Shengnan LI, Yuxiang CHEN, Zhendong ZHAO, Kailin MO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 38-44.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.006
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The tissue transparency method was used to observe the morphology of oil cells in the leaves of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum(Gamble) N. Chao ex H. W. Li in spring and autumn, and the density and diameter of the oil cells were determined. Cell wall structure of the oil cells was observed with scanning electron microscopy. GC-MS was used to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from the leaves of C. longepaniculatumin in spring and autumn.Eucalyptol, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene content was analyzed by GC. Finally, antioxidant activity of the essential oils was evaluated. The density of oil cells of C. longepaniculatum leaves in spring and autumn was (41±3) and (38±2) per mm2, the diameter was (51.87±1.64) and (36.89±2.64) μm, and the cell wall thickness was 1.65 and 0.63 μm, respectively. The extraction yields of essential oils from C. longepaniculatum leaves were 4.45% and 3.09%(based on dry weight) in spring and autumn, respectively. Sixteen types of chemical compounds were identified with GC-MS, and no significant difference was observed in the content of the three main components. The total antioxidant capacity of the essential oils from C. longepaniculatum leaves harvested in spring and autumn was 6.50 and 5.50 U/mL, respectively (40% of Vc), and the IC50 value corresponding to scavenging of DPPH free radicals was 0.2 g/L.

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Preparation and Properties of Maleopimaric-based Epoxy Nanocomposite
Pan TAO, Chengyu WU, Shiying MAO, Meixin WANG, Jian LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 7-14.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.002
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Maleopimaric anhydride(MPA) was prepared from rosin by Diels-Alder addition, and then maleopimaric epoxy resin(MPA-ER) was prepared by esterification and closed-loop reaction. The structures of MPA and MPA-ER were characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR.A series of MPA-ER/MWCNTs composites were prepared by blending multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) with MPA-ER, the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were characterized, and the effects of MWCNTs addition on the mechanical and thermal properties of maleopimaric epoxy nanocomposites were investigated. The results of FT-IR and 1H NMR showed that MPA and MPA-ER were successfully prepared. MWCNTs were well dispersed in MPA-ER, and the cross-section had river-shaped texture features. The mechanical properties of MPA-ER/MWCNTs were significantly improved by adding MWCNTs. When the addition of MWCNTs was 1.2%(calculated by the mass of MPA-ER, similarly hereinafter), the mechanical properties of the composite MPA-ER/MWCNTs(1.2) were optimized. Its impact toughness, tensile strength, bending strength and elongation at break were 15.11 kJ/m2, 40.42 MPa, 105.45 MPa and 14.80%, which increased by 159%, 160%, 102% and 135% compared with those of MPA-ER, respectively.At the same time, in cone calorimeter test, the peak heat release rate and carbon residue rate of MPA-ER/MWCNTs(1.2) composite were 324 kW/m2 and 9.18%, respectively.Compared with MPA-ER, the peak heat release rate decreased by 14%, and the carbon residue rate increased by 68%, which indicated that the addition of MWCNTs also improved the thermal stability and flame retardancy of MPA-ER/MWCNTs.The improvement of flame retardancy of MPA-ER/MWCNTs(1.2) composites was mainly attributed to the effective increase of crosslinking density of epoxy resin by adding MWCNTs, and forming a relatively dense carbon layer in the interior of epoxy resin, and then the flame retardant effect was achieved by partially isolating the external heat and air.

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Synthesis, Structurally Characterization and Alga Inhibiting Activity of ω-Isothiocyanomethyl Longifolene
Mengzhu WANG, Hongyun LAN, Daozhan HUANG, Maomao ZHU, Hong ZOU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (2): 103-109.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.02.014
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ω-Isothiocyanomethyl longifolene(Ib) with low irritating odor was selectively synthesized by substitution reaction of lead thiocyanate and ω-chloromethyl longifolene(Ia) under reflux heating with hexane as solvent. The final product was characterized through HRMS, FT-IR, UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The molecular formula of C17H25NS was determined by HRMS, and the presence of N=C=S structure and long-leaf alkene structure was confirmed by FT-IR, UV spectroscopy and 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy, respectively. Compound Ib could be regarded as an allyl isothiocyanate compound, containing longifolene and methyl isothiocyanate molecule structure moiety. The algae inhibitory activity of compound Ib was evaluated by 96-well plate two-fold dilution assay. It was obtained that compound Ib was able to inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus and Skeletonema sp. with the MIC of about 62.5 and 31.2 mg/L, respectively, and the algae inhibitory activity was significantly better than that of compound Ia, longleafene and methyl isothiocyanate.

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Preparation and Application of Lignin-based Intumescent Flame Retardant
Mengke LIANG, Jing CHEN, Peng DAI, Xiaofeng MA, Meng ZHANG, Zhenyang LUO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (4): 10-16.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.04.002
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Lignin-based intumescent flame retardant(Lig-T) with carbon source, acid source and gas source was synthesized successfully by grafting nitrogen and phosphorus elements. The structure of the flame retardant Lig-T was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR), elements analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The Lig-T was added to the epoxy resin with different mass fractions to obtain Lig-T/EP composite material. Thermogravimetric analysis, underwriters laboratories 94(UL-94) vertical buring test, oxygen index(LOI) test and cone calorimetry(Cone) test were used to investigate the thermal stability and flame retardancy of composite materials. The results showed that when the mass fraction of the Lig-T was 20%, the composite material 20% Lig-T/EP could reach the UL-94 V-0 level, the oxygen index value was as high as 28.5%, and the mass fraction of the residue increased from 14.8% to 20.2%.With the increase of the mass fraction of Lig-T, the total amount of heat release and the total amount of smoke released during the combustion process of the composite material decreased.

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Preparation and Properties of Cellulose/PVA Composite Aerogels
Meng WANG, Li TANG, Li GAO, Rongfen QU, Tougen LIAO, He LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 95-102.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.013
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Based on the freeze-drying process and chemical vapor deposition technology, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) was compounded with cellulose to enhance the mechanical compressibility and dimensional stability of cellulose(CE) aerogels, followed by the fabrication of highly elastic, hydrophobic, and porous CE/PVA composite aerogels. The effects of PVA content on the mechanical properties of CE/PVA composite aerogels were studied. As the mass fraction of PVA increased, the compressive strength of cellulose aerogels increased. When the amount of PVA was 15% of the mass of cellulose, the compressive strain increased to 66 kPa, which was increased by 6.5 times. Simultaneously, the influences of silane modification on the microstructure, thermal stability, hydrophobicity, specific surface area and physical properties of composite aerogels were explored, and the results showed that S-CE/PVA composite aerogel modified by methyltriethoxysilane(MTES) had a denser lamellar structure, the initial decomposition temperature rose to 314.6℃, the water contact angle was as high as 115°, the specific surface area was 109.42 cm3/g, the density was 0.045 g/cm3, and the porosity was greater than 95%.

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Preparation Conditions and Properties of O/W Type Litsea cubeba Oil Microemulsion
Chen CHENG, Hongyan SI, Zongde WANG, Shengliang LIAO, Chenyang ZOU, Peng WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 67-76.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.010
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A microemulsion of Litsea cubeba(Lour.) Pers. oil was prepared by adding water. The influence of different surfactant and cosurfactant-types, the mass ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant(Km), and preparation temperature on the formation of water-in-oil(O/W) type microemulsion of L. cubeba oil were investigated using a single factor method, and through orthogonal experiments, the optimum preparation process of O/W type L. cubeba oil microemulsion was determined as follows: Triton X-100 as surfactant, absolute alcohol as cosurfactant, Kmvalue was equal to 1, and preparation temperature was set to 25 ℃. Under the best preparation conditions, the ratio of the mixed surfactant and the essential oil of L. cubeba was 9∶1, and the water content was 70% for sample 1. The average particle diameter, polydispersion coefficient, conductivity and pH value of sample 1 were 13.43 nm, 0.125, 83 mS/m, and 5.82, respectively. The performance test and analysis of sample 1 showed that there was no change in the appearance of the microemulsion when it was centrifuged at the rate of 1 000 to 4 000 r/min, which could prove that the centrifugal stability was better than essential oil. Adding the same amount of methylene blue aqueous solution to sample 1 and essential oil, its diffusion rate in sample 1 was significantly faster than that in the essential oil, which proved that the water solubility of microemulsion was significantly better than that of the essential oil.After 12 h of sustained-release, the content of sustained-release citral in the microemulsion was significantly less than that of the sustained-release citral in the essential oil, indicating that the sustained release of the microemulsion was better than that of the essential oil itself. The results of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical(DPPH·) and 2, 2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) radical(·ABTS+) scavenging experiments indicated that DPPH· and·ABTS+ scavenging rates of sample 1 of L. cubeba essential oil microemulsion were significantly higher than those of essential oil in the concentration range of 10-30 g/L. The DPPH·and·ABTS+ scavenging rates of the L. cubeba essential oil microemulsion sample 1 at 30 g/L concentration were 95% and 54.7%, while those of L. cubeba essential oil were only 44.79% and 16.4%, respectively, indicating that L. cubeba essential oil prepared as microemulsion could significantly improve its antioxidant property, and the anti-oxidation property of microemulsion to DPPH· was significantly better than that of·ABTS+.

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Synthesis of 2, 3, 4, 4'-Tetrahydroxybenzophenone from 1, 2, 3-Trimethoxybenzene
Lanxiang LIU, Weidong HUANG, Gang DONG, Kun LI, Jinju MA, Hong ZHANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 15-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.003
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To prevent the oxidation of raw materials(pyrogallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid)during the traditional synthesis of 2, 3, 4, 4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone(4HBP), an intermediate compound, 2, 3, 4, 4'-tetramethoxydibenzone(4TMP), was synthesized for the first time by the hydroxyl protection method. 1, 2, 3-trimethoxybenzene(TMB) and p-anisic acid(p-AA) were used as the raw materials, and Eaton reagent and 1, 2-dichloroethane were used as the catalyst and solvent, respectively. The target product, 2, 3, 4, 4'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, was synthesized by demethylation of the intermediate in a BBr3/CH2Cl2 system with anhydrous, anaerobic and low temperature conditions. The yield of the target product was approximately 86.4%, and the purity was ≥98.8%, the content of each metal ion was less than 18.60 mg/kg.The structures of the intermediate and target products were investigated by IR, NMR, and MS.

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Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Two Citrus Essential Oils and Their Main Components
Huazheng CHEN, Kai ZHU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (4): 17-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.04.003
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Orange oil, tangerine oil and limonene were used as target samples to study their scavenging capacities on ABTS+·, DPPH· and O2-· and total antioxidant capacity(FRAP value), as well as their antioxidant abilities in vivo and inhibitory abilities to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that tangerine oil had the best scavenging capacity on ABTS+· and DPPH·, their IC25 values were 1.481 and 24.824 g/L, respectively; limonene had the best scavenging effect on O2-·, and the scavenging rate was 32.86% at 0.8 g/L. The ferric ion reducing antioxidant power(FRAP) values of limonene, orange oil and tangerine oil were close to each other and weaker than those of BHA. At the mass concentration of 100 mg/L, the catalase(CAT) activities in Caenorhabditis elegans treated with tangerine oil and limonene were about 46 U/mg, which was 1.63 times of that in the untreated control group. Orange oil, tangerine oil and limonene had a relatively good inhibitory effect on S. aureus and E. coli. The inhibitory effect of tangerine oil on S. aureus was close to limonene, and the diameter of inhibition zone was about 11 mm. Orange oil, tangerine oil and limonene had an excellent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, and they were moderately sensitive to S. aureus.

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Preparation and Characterization of Turpentine-based Polyamide Flame Retardant Material
Fuhao DONG, Xincheng ZHOU, Penghao SUN, Lizhen GUO, Xu XU, Shifa WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 21-28.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.004
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By using camphene, a derivative of turpentine, as a raw material; a flame-retardant monomer, N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N-isobornylacrylamide (NPSBAM); and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), a flame-retardant copolymer—P(NIPAM-co-NPSBAM)—was prepared through the random copolymerization of NPSBAM and NIPAM. The structure, morphology, mechanical properties, and flame retardancy of the copolymer were analyzed. The results showed that the vibration peak of Si—O—C was found in the infrared spectrum, and the carbon-carbon double bond basically disappeared, which indicated that the turpentine silicone monomer NPSBAM was successfully introduced into the copolymer P(NIPAM-co-NPSBAM). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface of NPSBAM-2 was rough, because of the introduction of the rigid ring.Moreover, as the content of NPSBAM increased, the water contact angle increased, indicating that the hydrophobicityof polyamide materialincreased. In addition, thermogravimetric analysis suggested that the introduction of the organosilicon monomer promoted carbon formation in the polyamide materials, and the amount of the residue increased with increasing organosilicon content. The analysis of the thermal decomposition kinetics indicated that with an increase in the content of the flame-retardant monomer, NPSBAM, the average activation energy increased from 123 to 166 kJ/mol. This indicated that the thermal stability of polyamide increased with an increase in the NPSBAM content. The mechanical property test showed that the tensile strength of polyamide increased from 5.2 to 7.2 MPa, which proved that the presence of the rigid ring in the turpentine monomer caused an improvement of the mechanical properties of polyamide. Furthermore, flame retardancy tests showed that the flame retardancy of the polyamide materials was improved.The limiting oxygen index(LOI)also increased from 16.4% to 23.9%.

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Preparation of Nitrogen-doped Activated Carbon from Alkali/Urea Dissolution System and Its Electrochemical Properties
Xuan YANG, Xinyu ZHENG, Jianhua LYU, Hao YING, Biao HUANG, Guanfeng LIN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (2): 10-16.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.02.002
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Nitrogen-doped activated carbon was fabricated by one-step pyrolysis with Chinese fir sawdust as raw material, melamine solid waste(oxhydryl and amino triazine, OAT) as nitrogen-rich source, alkali/urea system as solvent. The effects of activation temperatures and melamine solid waste dosage on adsorption performance and electrochemistry performance of activated carbon were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and specific surface area analyzer were used to study the surface structure and pore structure of the material. Cyclicvoltammetry(CV) curves, galvanostatical charge/discharge(GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) were used to test the electrochemical performance of samples. The results showed that with the increase of melamine solid waste content, the yield and adsorption performance of activated carbon samples increased first and then decreased; the addition of melamine solid waste was beneficial to increase the yield, nitrogen content, adsorption performance and electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped activated carbon. The specific surface area and pore structure of carbon materials affected the electrochemical performance of activated carbon samples. When the activation temperature was 900 ℃ and the melamine solid waste content was 15%, the yield of nitrogen-doped activated carbon was 34.2%, the iodine adsorption value was 1 116 mg/g, and the methylene blue adsorption value was 165 mg/g, specific surface area was 1 324 m2/g, nitrogen content was 3.5%. In the 6 mol/L KOH electrolyte, the specific capacitance could reach 193 F/g when the current density was 1 A/g.

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Synthesis and Thermal Analysis of Lignin-based Flame Retardant Containing Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Zhuo LI, Shuxian WENG, Fei SONG, Xiaoli REN, Xiaohui YANG, Lihong HU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 63-70.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.009
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Using depolymerized lignin(DL) as raw material, Schiff base nitrogen-containing lignin(N-DL) was prepared by phase transfer ultrasonic method, and then further reacted with 9, 10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide(DOPO) to synthesize nitrogen-phosphorus modified DL(NP-DL). NP-DL was a new type of expanded lignin-based nitrogen and phosphorus flame retardant. The structure and performance of NP-DL were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 31P NMR, TG, TG/FT-IR, TG/MS, GPC and XPS. The results showed that N and P were successfully introduced into the depolymerized lignin; TG analysis showed that the carbon residue rates of NP-DL at 600 and 800℃ were increased by 1 285.5% and 362.6% compared with those of DL, respectively. The test results of TG/FT-IR and TG/MS showed that NP-DL was thermally degraded to produce phosphorus: [OP+] with m/z=47, [H3PO] with m/z=50, [O2P+] with m/z=63 and[HO2P+] with m/z=64 proved that the phosphorus-containing compounds produced during the pyrolysis of NP-DL inhibited combustion.

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