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Research Progress in Preparation of Biomass Based 2, 5-Furan Dicarboxylic Acid from Furoic Acid
Chun CHANG, Jinsheng WU, Zhiyong CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.001
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As a green bio-based platform chemical, 2, 5-furan dicarboxylic acid(FDCA) was widely used in polyester, plasticizer, fire protection, medicine, etc. At present, according to the distinction of raw materials for the synthesis of FDCA, the synthetic routes of FDCA could be divided into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) route, furoic acid route and other raw material routes. Among them, furfural acid could be prepared from the oxidation of bulk bio-based chemical furfural, and the industrial production of furfural made the preparation of FDCA from furfural acid had the potential advantages of green and economical. Based on this, this paper reviews the research status of four methods for preparing FDCA from furoic acid, including: disproportionation, carbonylation, carboxylation and biocatalysis methods. The paper also summarizes a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each method and highlights the progress made in their respective research fields. A comparative analysis indicates that the C-H carboxylation method is a gentle and environmentally friendly process, demonstrating significant potential for large-scale production.

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Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Technology of Saponins from Gleditsia sinensis Thorn by RSM and Its Hypoglycemic Activity
Yong LIU, Caihong ZHANG, Pujun XIE, Yejun DENG, Lixin HUANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 12-18.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.002
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On the basis of single factor experiment, response surface methodology(RSM) was used to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction optimum process of saponins from Gleditsia sinensis Thorn(GST), and the inhibitory activities of the extracts on α-glucosidase and α-amylase were investigated under the optimal extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions were solid-liquid ratio of 16:1(mL: g), ethanol volume fraction of 60%, ultrasonic time of 80 min and extraction temperature of 50℃. Under these conditions, the yield of total saponins was 13.28%±0.25%, and the IC50 value of α-glucosidase was (0.146±0.019) g/L, which was stronger than that of positive control acarbose with the median inhibitory concentration(IC50) value of (0.48±0.18) g/L. When the mass concentration of the extract was 2 g/L, the inhibition rate of α-amylase could reach 35.13%±0.58%, indicating that GST had the potential development into a drug for type II diabetes.

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Preparation and Characterization of High Performance Formed Activated Carbon by Modification of By-products from Bamboo Gasification
Ruting XU, Mingzhe MA, Hao YING, Hao SUN, Yanren JIN, Ting ZHAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.04.001
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Using carbon by-products produced by bamboo gasification as raw material and the polymerized modified tar as the binder, the bamboo formed activated carbon was obtained by hydro-forming, pyrolytic cross-linking and followed by water vapor activation. The forming mechanism of different binders were analyzed, and the properties of activated carbon were investigated, such as the variety of the binder, the adding amount of modified tar, the activation temperature and the activation time. The results showed that after modification by aromatization and cross-linking, the molecular weight and thermal stability of tar were improved; the blocking effect of bamboo char pore channels was reduced; the bonding and pyrolytic cross-linking between char particles were enhanced; and high-performance bamboo forming activated carbon could be prepared. Using 40g bamboo charcoal as raw material, the tar addition amount of 12 g, the carbonization temperature of 550 ℃, the carbonization time of 90 min, the activation temperature of 850 ℃ and the activation time of 80 min, the iodine adsorption value of the formed carbon was 1 232 mg/g, the methylene blue(MB) adsorption value was 240 mg/g, the strength was 91%, and the yield was 48.5%. The specific surface area and total pore volume were 1 157 m2/g and 0.478 1 cm3, respectively. The adsorption rates of toluene and carbon tetrechloride were 385 mg/g and 75.2%, respectively. And the adsorption rate of toluene and carbon tetrechloride was positively related to the micropore volume of formed activated carbon.

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Preparation and Properties of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives Derived from Rosin Bio-based Acrylate
Simai QI, Tong LUO, Meihong LIU, Chunpeng WANG, Fuxiang CHU, Jifu WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 49-55.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.007
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In this work, furfural-based monomer tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate(THFMA), disproportionated rosin-based monomer(DRM), and oil-based monomer lauryl methacrylate(LMA) were used as raw materials to prepare a series of bio-based pressure-sensitive adhesives(PSA) based on THFMA/DRM/LMA by solution polymerization method. The effects of hard monomer and soft monomer composition ratio and the monomer molecular structure on the performance of PSA were investigated in detail. The results showed that the adhesion increased from 0.48 to 72 h with the increase of hard monomer THFMA in PSA from 10% to 50%. When the content of THFMA was 30%, the comprehensive performance of PSA was the best. The tack of THFMA30-LMA was 2.28 N, the 180° peel strength was 143.6 N/m, and the shear resistance reached 21.25 h. In addition, compared with THFMA, using DRM as hard monomer could enhance the mechanical properties of PSA and improve the thermal stability of PSA.

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Anti- Trichophyton rubrum Active Ingredients in Leaves of Heracleum vicinum Boiss.
Haishun WU, Mouyan LIU, Huazhong YU, Huixin CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (3): 130-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.03.016
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In order to understand the anti-Trichophyton rubrum activity of the leaves of Heracleum vicinum, the difference of anti-T. rubrum activity between different parts of H. vicinum, other varieties of H. vicinum and some plants with anti-T. rubrum activity were studied using the size of inhibition zone as the index. The extraction process of H. vicinum leaves was optimized by single factor test and response surface method, and the solvent extraction and chemical composition pre-test analysis of H. vicinum leaves extract were carried out. The results showed that the anti-T. rubrum activities of different genera of Umbelliferae were different. H. vicinum had good antibacterial activity, and the antibacterial activities of leaves, seeds and roots were not significantly different. The optimal extraction conditions for the anti-T. rubrum activity of the leaves of H. vicinum was as follows: ethanol volume fraction of 25%, liquid-solid ratio of 15∶1(mL∶g), ultrasonic power of 220 W, extraction temperature of 80 ℃, and extraction time of 30 min. Under these process conditions, the inhibition zone of the extract of H. vicinum leaves against T. rubrum was (22±0.2) mm. The antibacterial components in the extract of H. vicinum leaves could be well dissolved in petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, where the petroleum ether extract had the best antibacterial effect. The preliminary test of chemical components showed that the active components of the leaves of H. vicinum against T. rubrum might be phenolic and flavonoid active components.

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Purification of Polysaccharides from Codonopsis pilosula by Macroporous Adsorption Resin and Its Whitening, Moisture Absorption and Moisturizing Properties
Mengru ZHAN, Yanbin WANG, Shuhe KANG, Xingping LUO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (3): 79-88.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.03.010
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On the basis of static experiments, the purification effects of polysaccharides on 14 kinds of macroporous adsorption resins(S-8, ADS-F8, LSA-21, LSA-10, HP-20, ADS-17, NKA-9, DM130, AB-8, X-5, H103, D101, XAD-8, DA201) from Codonopsis pilosula(Franch.) Nannf. extraction were compared, and the better resin ADS-F8 was selected for dynamic adsorption. Based on the single factor experiments, the weighted comprehensive score of polysaccharides retention rate, decolorization rate and protein removal rate were used as the response values, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the purification conditions of C. pilosula polysaccharide by macroporous resin. Meanwhile, the whitening activity, moisture absorption and moisture retention of the purified polysaccharides were tested. The results showed that the optimal purification conditions were as follows: loading concentration of 1 g/L, eluting volume of 150 mL, flow rate of 100 mL/h, and sample volume of 150 mL. Under these conditions, the comprehensive score of purification was (73.12±0.06)%(n=3), which was close to the predicted value of 73.02%. The purified polysaccharides had favorable whitening activity, and the half inhibitory mass concentration(IC50) value of tyrosinase monophenase was 3.20 g/L, which was similar to the inhibitory effect of whitening agent phenylethylresorcinol. The IC50 value of bisphenolase was 7.96 g/L, which is higher than phenylethylresorcinol of 0.73 g/L. When the air humidity was 43%, the purified polysaccharide showed strong hygroscopicity, and the highest moisture absorption rate was 123.01% at 12 h. In four air humidity conditions, the purified polysaccharides, crude polysaccharides and their mixture with a volume ratio 1∶1 to glycerol all had high moisture retention, especially, the moisturizing property of the mixture was better, and the moisturizing rate reached 99.95% within 12 h, which was significantly better than that of purified polysaccharide and crude polysaccharide.

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Ethanol Precipitation, Deproteinization and Anti-oxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara
Quhuan MA, Xin WANG, Xiaofeng SHI, Wei SHEN, Bin FAN, Xindi WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (5): 81-88.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.05.011
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The ethanol precipitation, deproteinization process and anti-oxidant activity of polysaccharides from pine needles of Cedrus deodara were studied. On the basis of single factor experiment, the concentration ratio of extraction solution, volume fraction of ethanol, and alcohol settling time were optimized by Box-Behnken design model. The optimum conditions of alcohol precipitation of C. deodara pine needles were determined by comparing the yield of polysaccharides. With the protein removal rate and polysaccharide loss rate as the index, the deproteinization effect of Sevage method and three chloroacetic acid method on polysaccharide of pine needles were compared, and the amount of reagent and the times of deproteinization were investigated. The anti-oxidant ability of the purified polysaccharides was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS free radical methods. The optimum alcohol precipitation conditions for the polysaccharide of pine needles were the concentration ratio(volume of crude extract to dry weight of pine needles) of 3:1(mL: g), the alcohol volume fraction of first order alcohol precipitation of 71%, the temperature of alcohol precipitation of 40℃, and the time of alcohol precipitation of 10 h. Under these conditions, the yield of pine needles polysaccharide was 3.81%, which was close to the predicted value. The supernatant after collecting polysaccharides was concentrated according to the ratio of solution to pine needle dry mass of 1:1(mL: g), and the volume fraction of alcohol precipitate at two level was 80%. The protein removal efficiency of Sevage method was superior to three chloroacetic acid method. Its optimum condition was that the volume ratio of Sevage reagent to polysaccharide solution was 1:1, and the number of protein removal was 3 times. After purification, the contents of primary and secondary alcohol precipitate polysaccharides were calculated by UV method with glucose conversions of 35.36% and 36.62%, respectively. The scavenging activities on DPPH and ABTS radicals were as follows: vitamin C(Vc)>secondary alcohol precipitate polysaccharides>butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT)>primary alcohol precipitates polysaccharides. The purified 80% alcohol precipitation polysaccharides of C. deodara pine needles showed good anti-oxidant activity.

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Construction of Multicolor Afterglow Aerogel by Carbon Dots/CNF
Xinzhu HUO, Mengnan CAO, Shouxin LIU, Zhijun CHEN, Jian LI, Shujun LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (5): 1-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.05.001
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Citric acid carbon dots(CDs) were prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method using citric acid as carbon source. The afterglow aerogel CDs@CNF was prepared by doping CDs into cellulose nanofibers(CNF) after physical cross-linking. The red afterglow aerogel CDs-RhB@CNF was prepared by triplet-to-singlet Förster resonance energy transfer(TS-FRET) strategy using CDs as donor and rhodamine B(RhB) as acceptor. The photophysical properties and microstructure of the aerogel were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy(TEM), ultraviolet-visible(UV-Vis) absorption spectrum, steady-state transient fluorescence spectroscopy and International Commission on Illumination(CIE) chromatograms. The results showed that, the phosphorescence lifetime of CDs@CNF at 535 nm was 144.88 ms, the CDs were uniformly distributed in the CNF aerogel, which had a honeycomb porous structure. The phosphorescence lifetime of CDs-RhB@CNF at 600 nm was 102.49 ms, and the Förster transfer efficiency was up to 65.9%. The yellow afterglow aerogel CDs-Rh6G@CNF and CDs-Rh123@CNF were obtained by doping rhodamine 6G(Rh6G) and rhodamine 123(Rh123) with fluorescent dyes, and the aerogel-loaded phosphorescent paper was further applied in the field of aesthetic origami and advanced anti-counterfeiting, extending the strategy and application area of preparing multicolor afterglow materials from natural biomass.

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Chemical Constituents of the Leaves of Eucommia ulmoides and Its Neuroprotective Activity
Fengcheng HU, Rui HAN, Cong GUO, Jiangjiang TANG, Jinming GAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (3): 9-15.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.03.002
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The ethanolic extracts of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaves were isolated and purified, where thirteen compounds were obtained, including one new compound and twelve known compounds. The structures of the compounds were identified by spectral data as follows: (R, 9Z, 12E, 15Z)-11-hydroxyoctadeca-9, 12, 15-trienoic acid(1), 7-hydroxycoumarin(2), astragaline(3), quercetine(4), quercetin-3-O-glucoside(5), 2-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5, 7-dihydroxy-3-[(3-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-α-D-galactopy-ranosyl)oxy]-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one(6), (2R, 3S)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-methoxypropane-1, 2-diol(7), (2S, 3R)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-methoxypropane-1, 2-diol(8), chlorogenic acid(9), gardendiol(10), 4-benzyloxy benzoic acid(11), vanillic acid(12) and myristic acid(13). Among them, compound 1 was a new fatty acid compound. The anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of 13 compounds were studied. The results showed that compounds 4, 5 and 10 exhibited significant anti-neuroinflammatory activity by inhibiting the release of nitric oxide(NO) production in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced in mouse microglia(BV-2 cells), with half inhibitory concentration(IC50) values of (10.8±0.9), (9.7±1.1) and (10.7±0.3) μmol/L, respectively. Compound 5 exhibited significant neuroprotective activity under oxidative stress. After pretreatment with 20 μmol/L H2O2-induced rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells(PC-12 cells), the cell survival rate was (86.5±0.5)%, which was higher than that of the positive control hesperidin.

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Effect of Acetic Acid on Ethanol Pulping and Pulp Properties of Bambusa pervariabilis
Hongshuang BAI, Qingwei PING, Xueru SHENG, Jian ZHANG, Na LI, Haiqiang SHI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 43-48.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.006
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Using Bambusa pervariabilis as the raw materials the effects of acetic acid on the pulp yield, hardness, fiber crystallinity, fiber morphology and paper performance in ethanol pulping were studied. The results showed that the pH value of the solution decreased significantly from 7.3 to 4.1 after 2.0% acetic acid was added. The yield of coarse pulp decreased from 46.64% to 43.14%, which accelerated the degradation of carbohydrates. The Kappa number of pulp decreased from 52.31 to 48.90, which promoted the lignin removal during cooking. The relative molecular weight of lignin increased when the dosage of acetic acid was lower than 6%, while the relative molecular weight of lignin reduced when the dosage of acetic acid was higher than 6%. The addition of acetic acid made the coexistence of lignin degradation or condensation. The average length of the double mass(Lw) decreased from 1.72 to 1.58 mm, and the average width of the doublemass(Ww) decreased from 25.27 to 19.37 μm, which could make the fiber shrink and hard. The loose thickness and tear index of the finished paper were improved after adding acetic acid. The loose thickness increased from 2.16 to 2.30 cm3/g, and the tear index increased from 130.67 to 133.33(mN·m2)/g. The tensile index, flexability and break resistance decreased significantly. The tensile index decreased from 19.06 to 14.37(N·m)/g, the flexability decreased from 6 times to 3 times, and the break index decreased from 1.0 to 0.7 (kPa·m2)/g. The fiber crystallinity decreased from 54.67% to 48.71%. Acetic acid would destroy the fiber crystal zone, and the fiber crystallinity gradually decreased with the increase of acetic acid dosage, while the crystal zones of natural cellulose did not change.

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Preparation of Porous Graphite Carbon Nitride and Its Visible Light Catalytic Conversion of Lignin
Chunyu REN, Xiangyu LIN, Zhuomin WANG, He LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 116-126.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.015
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Porous graphitic carbon nitride(mpg-CN) material with large surface area(126.6 m2/g) was successfully prepared by removing silica from a graphitic carbon nitride(g-C3N4)/silica composite, where the latter was synthesized using urea and tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS) as precursors through thermal polycondensation. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, SEM, TEM, XRD, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy(PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) were used to analyze the internal structure, physical morphology, crystalline form and photoelectrical properties of the catalyst. The results showed that the introduction of TEOS had almost no effect on the crystal structure and band gap of the catalyst, while it could increase the specific surface area, pore volume and pore size of mpg-CN, thus providing more active sites. mpg-CN had lower photogenerated carrier recombination rate, higher photogenerated carrier separation efficiency and mobility, which was beneficial to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. To test the photocatalytic activity and product selectivity of the catalyst with different atmospheres and solvents conditions, a lignin model compound 1(2-phenoxy-1-phenylethanol) was used as the substrate. The results showed that under the conditions of catalyst mpg-CN, illumination, O2 atmosphere and solvent of CH3CN for 7.5 h, the conversion rate of 2-phenoxy-1-phenylethanol can reach 98.06%, and the selectivity of C-C bond cleavage was 91.79%. The result of the capture experiment proved that the photo-generated hole(h+) was the main active substance in the induced reactions. mpg-CN also had good stability and recycling performance, and the conversion rate of model compound 1 was 93%-98% when it was recycled for 1-8 times. Furthermore, the catalyst also showed a high conversion rate of 93.18% for the photocatalytic conversion of complex dimer lignin model compound 1b(1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-propane-1-diol).

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Research Progress of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Euscaphis Plants
Liangjie TANG, Wei LUO, Hulan CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 153-170.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.019
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The main chemical constituents of Euscaphis plants are triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, sesquiterpenoids, etc. Modern research shown that the extracts and monomeric compounds of the Euscaphis plants had anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumour, anti-hepatic fibrosis and other pharmacological effects. At present, species delimitation of Euscaphis was changed and it was not very clear whether there were differences in chemical composition between the different varieties. Through the systematic search and summary of the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Euscaphis plants, and we deeply elaborated whether differences in chemical composition was existed between different species and possible differential components, in order to provide a reference for the classification, development and use of Euscaphis plants.

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Preparation and Properties of UV-shielded Film Derived from Full Components of Bagasse
Xun KE, Yuanxing YANG, Lihong ZHAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (3): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.03.001
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In order to construct a new composite film material with all-component from biomass, ternary deep eutectic solvent consisting of choline chloride-oxalic acid dihydrate-glycerol(ChCl-OAd-Gly) was used to pretreat bagasse raw materials, and the treated residue was recombined with the dissolved components to obtain lignin-containing nanocellulose(LNC) by homogeniza-tion. The lignin-containing nanocellulose film(LNCF) functional materials was then prepared via vacuum-assisted and hot press methods. The influence of the lignin content on UV shielding properties, mechanical properties, water resistance, thermal stability and morphology of LNCF were studied using elemental analysis, atomic force microscopy(AFM), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), material universal tester, thermogravimetric analyzer and spectrophotometer. The results showed that with the lignin addition increase at 20% by volume, the lignin mass fraction in LNC increase 2-3 percentage point the diameter of LNC decrease slightly. The prepared LNCF exhibited good UV shielding effect, and the UV shielding rate in 200-400 nm and the visible light transmittance in 390-780 nm for LNCF-100% reached 99.68% and 65.46%, respectively. The addition of lignin enhanced the mechanical properties of LNCF, and its tensile strength increased from 76.61 MPa of LNCF-0% to 144.73 MPa of LNCF-100%. The hydrophobicity of LNCF was significantly improved. The water contact angle of LNCF-100% surface was 90.47°, and the water absorption rate of LNCF-0% without lignin reduced from 21.52% to 7.14%. Accordingly, the wet mechanical properties were maintained with the wet strength up to 77.3 MPa. Moreover, all six LNCF displayed good thermal stability, and the temperature of maximum pyrolytic weight loss was higher than 337 ℃。

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Research Progress of Biomass Based Carbon Materials in the Treatment of Dyeing Wastewater
Shuang JIA, Meijuan HUANG, Bo ZHANG, Zhiyi WEI, Hui CHENG, Shouzhu LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (5): 145-156.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.05.019
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Firstly, the decontamination mechanism of biomass-based carbon materials was summarized, and the selection, preparation and surface modification methods of biomass raw materials were analyzed according to the mechanism. The effects of internal factors, including pore structure and surface functional groups, and external factors such as initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, solution pH and temperature on the adsorption performance were discussed. In addition, the adsorption characteristics such as adsorption thermodynamics, adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics were analyzed. Finally, the problems existed in the practical application of biomass-based carbon materials and the diverse development directions in the future were summarized, hoping to provide reference for the application of biomass based carbon materials in the high-efficiency treatment of dying wastewater.

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Extraction and Separation of Taxinine from Taxus cuspidata Branches and Leaves and Their Antitumor Activities
Ping JIANG, Jingliang QU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (3): 137-144.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.03.017
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Using the branches and leaves of Taxus cuspidata Siebold et Zucc. as raw materials and petroleum ether as extraction solvent, the taxinine was extracted by the ultrasonic-assisted method. The extraction process was optimized by single factor test and orthogonal method, and taxinine was obtained by separation and purification. In addition, the anti-tumor activity test was conducted on different separation components of petroleum ether and taxinine. The optimal conditions for ultrasonic-assisted method of 10 g taxinine were ultrasonic power of 168 W, extraction time of 50 min, material to liquid ratio of 1∶8(g∶mL) and extraction temperature of 50 ℃. The petroleum ether extract was separated and purified by silica gel column and C18 reversed-phase column to obtain taxanes. The compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and single crystal X-ray diffraction structure analysis. The results of anti-tumor activity of Fr.1-Fr.7 fraction and taxinine obtained from Fr.4 fraction showed that Fr.1, Fr.3, Fr.4 and Fr.5 had good inhibitory activity on human cervical cancer cells, with half inhibitory mass concentration(IC50) values of 32.3, 31.9, 22.3 and 38.4 mg/L, respectively. Taxinine had a good inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells, human non-small cell lung cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells. Among them, the inhibitory effect on non-small cell lung cancer was relatively best, with IC50 value of 13.1 mg/L, followed by the inhibitory effect on breast cancer cells and IC50 value was 17.9 mg/L. It also had a certain inhibitory effect on cervical cancer cells, with IC50 value of 35.5 mg/L.

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Research Progress of Lignin-based Polyurethane Adhesives
Junqian DENG, Ling CHEN, Hailan LIAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (3): 160-172.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.03.019
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Based on the theory of lignin-based polyurethane preparation, this article summarized the methods for binding lignin and polyurethane when polyurethane adhesives were prepared from lignin, and elucidated the research status of lignin and modified lignin for preparing polyurethane adhesives. Furthermore, the main modification methods of lignin for the synthesis of polyurethane adhesives were summarized, and the influence of lignin modification methods on the performance of polyurethane adhesives was also discussed. It can be found that the ultimate goal of modification of ligin is to convert the phenolic hydroxyl groups into alcohol hydroxyl groups, in order to improve the reaction activity between lignin and polyurethane. Finally, the development directions of lignin polyurethane adhesives were prospected.

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Progress of Co-production of Gas and Char from Biomass Gasification
Zhongqing MA, Junjie XUE, Shizhen YUAN, Rufei LU, Shurong WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (3): 145-159.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.03.018
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In this work, the biomass resource reserve and its potential application as energy source in China was first analyzed. Subsequently, the principle, technical route, and the influence factors of the biomass gasification polygeneration for biogas and biochar technology were comprehensirvely introduced. Furthermore, the typical cases of multiple gasification integrated systems adapted to different feedstocks forms were described and the biomass gasification technology was prespected. The successful implementation of biomass gasification co-production of biogas and biochar technology was of great importantce for China to establish a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, increase the share of the renewable energy in national energy supply, and achieve the goal of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality.

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Preparation of Amphoteric Cellulose Based Adsorbent and Its Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollutants from Wastewater
Yingnan SUN, Suzhen LIU, Haiming LI, Jingpeng ZHOU, Fengshan ZHANG, Yanzhu GUO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 143-152.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.018
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Amphoteric cellulose copolymers(CO-AC) adsorbents were prepared though free radical polymerization in one-pot process using cellulose as raw material and methacryloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride(METAC), acrylamide(AM), 2-acryloamino-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid(AMPS) as monomers and potassium persulfate as initiator. The structure and properties of CO-AC were characterized by elemental analyzer and fourier infrared spectrometer(FT-IR). It was found that active groups, e.g., quaternary amine, amide and sulfonic acid group were successfully introduced into the molecular chains of cellulose. Taking the removal rate and equilibrium adsorption capacity of CO-AC to NH4+ and H2PO4- as the evaluation indexes, the adsorption conditions were optimized and the influence of various factors on the adsorption capacity of CO-AC were also evaluated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, derived under the conditions of 1:2:3:3 molar ratio of cellulose glucose unit to AMPS, AM and METAC, was the best. In 50 mL of NH4+ and H2PO4- solution with a mass concentration of 150 mg/L, the maximum adsorption capacity of NH4+ was 77.4 mg/g when the addition amount of CO-AC was 100 mg and pH value was 7.0. The maximum adsorption capacity of H2PO4- was 61.2 mg/g, while the addition amount was 100 mg and the pH value was 5.0. The adsorption process of NH4+ and H2PO4- on CO-AC was well characterized by the quasi-second-order kinetic, internal diffusion of particle and Langmuir models, indicating that chemisorption and internal particle diffusion processes were the main rate-limiting steps, and the adsorption process was homogeneous monolayer adsorption.

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Improving the Quality of Biofuel by Torrefaction
Yunhong SU, Jurong REN, Yunjuan SUN, Jianchun JIANG, Le XU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 27-35.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.004
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The effect of torrefaction on the quality of biofuel was investigated through a small torrefaction experimental equipment with rice husk(RH) and pine sawdust(PS) as the raw materials. The results showed that torrefied rice husk and sawdust exhibited an increase in fixed carbon content by 7.18% and 11.76%, compared with the raw materials. And the C element content with the largest increased of 3.50% and 5.80% for rice husk and sawdust, respectively. The contents of volatile matter and O element decreased significantly, and the content of H element also decreased slightly. The calorific value increased by 11.1%(RH) and 15.9%(PS), respectively. The hemicellulose contents in the torrefied rice husk and sawdust after reaching 300℃ were only 2.41% and 1.06%, respectively. The hemicellulose was decomposed both more than 90%. The relative content of lignin increased significantly, with the largest increases of 119%(RH) and 208%(PS), respectively. After biomass torrefaction, the internal fiber structure was destroyed and the grindability was improved. With the deepening of the torrefaction degree, the particles with the size below 0.15 mm increased significantly after torrefied rice husk being ground. The study found that oxygen-containing functional groups such as -OH and C-O were reduced, and the hydrophobicity of torrefied rice husk and sawdust increased by 28.08% and 25.66%, respectively, when torrefied at 250℃ for 30 min.

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Anatomical Structure of Gelsemium elegans Benth and the Antibacterial Action of Alkaloids
Meng ZHAO, Meiling LU, Yating ZHAO, Yunxia WANG, Qiongqiong XUE, Xueqin WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 105-115.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.014
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In the present study, the microstructure of Gelsemium elegans vegetative organs was observed, and the alkaloids in plants were localized. Also, the antibacterial activity of the alkaloids was explored, and the antibacterial mechanism of the alkaloids was analyzed. The anatomical study of the structural characteristics of G. elegans vegetative organs was carried out with anatomical methods, and through histochemical staining, the alkaloids in the plant were localized. Microscopic observation results showed that the structure of G. elegans performed the typical characteristics of the dicotyledonous plants; the leaf of G. elegans was dorsiventral, and there were starch granules deposited in stem pith. The histochemical results showed that the vegetative organs of G. elegans contained alkaloids. Alkaloids were mainly distributed in the mesophyll tissue of leaves. In the stem, alkaloids were mainly distributed in stem epidermis, cortex cells and phloem parenchyma cells. Also, alkaloids were distributed in parenchyma cells of pith and ray cells. Yellow-brown sedimentation also could be observed in the cork cambium, the inner layer, the cortex, phloem parenchyma and ray cells of the rhizome. The antibacterial activity results showed that the G. elegans alkaloid had antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19115, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Escherichia coli O157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC10104. With the increase of alkaloid concentration, the antibacterial effect was also enhanced. The inhibitory effect on Listeria monocytogenes was the most obvious. After treatment with its minimum inhibitory and lethal concentrations, the morphology and internal structure of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and Escherichia coli O157 showed that both two kinds of bacteria changed in different degrees, such as rough surface, depression, rupture of the cell membrane and cell wall, overflow of internal substance and even cell lysis. The morphology of S. aureus changed at the minimum inhibitory concentration and the cell wall of E. coli was stratified. This indicated that G. elegans alkaloid destroyed the permeability of the cell membrane, impeded the formation of the cell wall, and lysed the bacteria. The cell death at the minimum lethal concentration might be caused by the loss and cleavage of the mechanical strength and permeability of the wall.

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