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    Extraction of Cinnamomum camphora Essential Oil by Steam Distillation and Its Antifungal Activity
    Hongfu ZHENG,Shengliang LIAO,Guorong FAN,Zongde WANG,Shangxing CHEN,Hongyan SI
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 108-114.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.015
    Abstract195)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (591KB)(144)      

    In order to investigate the optimal extraction process of Cinnamomum camphora essential oil by steam distillation under laboratory conditions, several factors are investigated by single factor experiments. The results show that the extraction yield of essential oil of the C. camphora leaves is higher than that of branches. The effect of over-water distillation method is better than that of in-water distillation. The optimal distillation power is 600 W, the optimal distillation time is 40 min, and the appropriate post-harvest storage time is less than 48 h. The extraction yield of essential oil under these conditions is 1.42%. The chemical composition of C. camphora essential oil is analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Six compounds are identified, which account for 94.56% of the total peak area, the main component is linalool, it accounts for 89.58% of the total peak area. The antifungal activities of C. camphora essential oil against six plant pathogenic fungi are tested through determining the growth rate of fungal hyphae. The results show that C. camphora essential oil exhibits good antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, when the testing mass concentration of C. camphora essential oil are 500, 250 and 125 mg/L, the inhibition rates are 100%, 90.88% and 67.94%, respectively.

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    Preparation of High-efficient Tung Oil Drier and Its Drying Performance
    Yun YU,Ningning YANG,Bin HUANG,Yan YANG,Youwei LIAO
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 101-107.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.014
    Abstract182)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (1306KB)(71)      

    The effects of four kinds of driers, namely rare earth isooctanoate(REI), cobalt isooctanoate(CI), high-efficient drier M2203 and CQ-150B alone or in combination on the drying performance of tung oil and polymerized tung oil were investigated. The experimental results showed that the viscosity of polymerized tung oil at 10℃ was 15 520 mPa·s and higher than that of tung oil(160 mPa·s). The drying time of polymerized tung oil at 20℃ was 72 h and shorter than that of tung oil(168 h). When 0.6% of REI was used together with 0.010% of CI, the surface drying time and hard drying time of raw tung oil were 2 and 2.5 h, respectively, the hardness grade was 4 H, and the adhesion grade was 1; the surface drying time and hard drying time of polymerized tung oil were 0.67 and 1 h, hardness grade was 5 H, adhesion was grade 1. Compared with the high-efficient drier M2203 and CQ-150B drier, the composite drier had light color and good compatibility with tung oil. FI-IR and TGA analysis showed that the tung oil paint film prepared by drying with compound drier had high cross-linking degree and good heat stability. So the compound drier was proved to be an excellent tung oil drier.

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    Synergistic Effect of Co-pyrolysis of Biomass and Plastics
    Shiqi LIU,Suping ZHANG,Taili YU,Qinjie CAI
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 34-42.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.005
    Abstract175)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (2712KB)(105)      

    The co-pyrolysis activities of sawdust/low-density polyethylene(LDPE) were studied in fixed-bed reactor. The effect of temperature on the co-pyrolysis behavior was also investigated by comparing with sawdust and LDPE individually. The results showed that the bio-oil yield could be effectively improved by the co-pyrolysis process, the maximum bio-oil yield(56.84%) was obtained at 600℃, which was 6.44 percentage point higher than the theoretical value. The composition of biomass and LDPE co-pyrolysis liquid products was analyzed by GC-MS. It was found that the bio-oil components produced by co-pyrolysis were mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and phenols. Some specific components, such as undecanol, heptenal and other oxygen-containing long-chain compounds, were also produced during the co-pyrolysis process, which was the product of free radical interaction between biomass and LDPE. The synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis of sawdust and LDPE was studied by thermogravimetry-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the maximum reaction rate temperature during co-pyrolysis was 490℃, which was about 22℃ lower than 512℃, which was the temperature of maximum reaction rate in LDPE individual pyrolysis. The hydroxyl radical generated during the lignin cracking process combining with the small molecular produced by the cleavage of LDPE formed undecanol, octyl-phenol and the like, and the furans and aldehydes formed during the pyrolysis of cellulose were reacted with the resulting CnHm formed by cleavage of LDPE to obtain the substances such as 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, heptenal, dodecanal or the like.

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    Research Progress of Reaction Path and Catalysts Used in Catalytic Conversion Process of Biomass to Methane
    Chiliu CAI,Changhui ZHU,Haiyong WANG,Chenguang WANG,Qiying LIU,Longlong MA
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.001
    Abstract175)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (1015KB)(147)      

    Methane is the hydrocarbon with highest hydrogen-carbon ratio, and is a kind of clean energy with high combustion calorific value as well. During the preparation of methane from biomass, biomass fermentation and biomass syngas fermentation are limited by the temperature sensitivity of active bacteria. This paper introduces the research progress of reaction mechanism and corresponding catalyst system of biomass synthesis gas to methane by chemical catalysts. The reaction mechanism of CO methanation and CO2 methanation in syngas, as well as the effects of active ingredients, supports and promoters in catalysts on methanation are mainly discussed. At the same time, the catalytic hydrothermal method of biomass with mild reaction conditions is also introduced. The reaction route and research progress in recent years are briefly described. Finally, methanation reaction mechanism and efficient, stable catalysts are perspective remarked from the technical point of view.

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    Solvatochromism of D-A Structure Compounds with Triarylamine
    Guanni TAN,Hong GAO,Jie SONG,Shibin SHANG,Zhanqian SONG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 79-86.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.011
    Abstract168)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (1061KB)(57)      

    The fluorescence emission spectra and UV absorption spectra of three series compounds with D-A structure in five different polar solvents were studied, and the solvatochromism of compounds were also disussed. The results showed that all compounds had different fluorescence emission wavelengths in five different polar solvents, the largest was that in methanol and the smallest was that in cyclohexane, but in dioxane, tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane, the emission wavelengths occurred red-shifted with the decrease of polarity of the solvent, and the fluorescence intensities varied in different polar solvents. The UV absorption wavelengths of compounds were affected by the polarities of solvents, they all had the minimum absorption wavelength in methanol. The absorbance of compounds in different polar solvents were also different, and those in methanol and cyclohexane were higher than others. All the properties above indicated that these three series of compounds had potential to be used as fluorescent probes to detect the polarity of the environment.

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    Research Progress on the Dissolution of Lignocellulose and Separation of Its Components by Deep Eutectic Solvents
    XIE Yitong, GUO Xin, Lü Yanna, WANG Haisong
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (5): 11-18.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.05.002
    Abstract156)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (852KB)(62)      
    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), similarly to ionic liquids in physicochemical properties, have distinctive properties of easy synthesis, cost effectiveness, high dissolution power, and structure design ability. Dissolving and separating lignocellulose and its components by deep eutectic solvents is a new and environmentally friendly method to produce biomass energy and materials. Based on the introduction of the physicochemical properties and dissolution mechanism, the development of DESs applications in dissolving and separating cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin was reviewed.Finally, the prospects of the utilization of DESs in the field of lignocellulose were proposed.
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    Graphitization of Biomass Catalyzed by Ni
    Chao CHEN,Ao WANG,Kang SUN,Xincheng LU,Wei XU,Jianchun JIANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 94-100.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.013
    Abstract152)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (10401KB)(56)      

    Cellulose, lignin, fir sawdust and walnut shell were used as the start materials. Graphitization procedure after carbonization was carried out at 1 400℃ with the assistant of Ni. X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectra and high resolution transparent electron microscopy(HRTEM) were used to evaluate the results of graphitization. The results showed that cellulose played a important role during the graphitization of biomass. Under the same treat progress, cellulose based product had the highest graphitic degree while lignin had the lowest graphitic degree, and both fir sawdust and walnut shell had the graphitic degree between those of the cellulose and lignin. The obvious difference of graphitic degree might be caused by the difference of the structures of different materials. The conductivity of cellulose based product was measured to be 54 S/cm while that of lignin based product was 31 S/cm, corresponding to the graphitic degree. The graphitic degree of the cellulose/lignin mixture based product was between those of the cellulose and lignin, and the mass ratio had little effect on the graphitic degree.

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    Recent Advances in Ultrasonic Treatment of Waste Paper Fibers
    Shuang SHI,Fang HU,Zechao MIAO,Hetian CAI,Dezhao LI
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 17-24.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.003
    Abstract152)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (543KB)(82)      

    Ultrasound treatment of waste paper fibers enlarges the applicable fields of this kind of fibrous material. This paper reviewed the applications of ultrasonic treatment of waste paper fibers in improving the properties of recycled paper, intensifying the production of fermentable sugar and ethanol, assisting the preparation of cellulose nanofibers, and enhancing the durability of cement building materials. The influence factors of ultrasonic treatment such as power and frequency of ultrasonic, action time of ultrasonic, temperature and suspended sediment concentration were analyzed, and the influence of ultrasonic treatment on the crystalline property, chemical structure and reaction accessibility of cellulose were summarized. Finally, the existing problems were analyzed and the future research and development direction were prospected.

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    Preparation and Performance Characterization of Sodium Alginate/Cellulose Composite Microspheres
    Yanqing LI,Zhiming LIU,Xiaokai CHENG,Mengnan CAO,Jianan WANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (2): 67-72.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.02.010
    Abstract149)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (7950KB)(49)      

    The cellulose solutions were prepared with the cotton linter pulp dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous system at low temperature and mixed with sodium alginate for the preparation of sodium alginate/cellulose composite micropheres(SACCM) by sol-gel transition. Then a series of SACCM, which could be preserved in water phase, were prepared by turning the ratio of cellulose and sodium alginate. The structure and properties of the microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR) and laser particle size analyzer. And the adsorption ability of the sodium alginate/cellulose composite microspheres to phosphate in water phase were evaluated. The results showed that all the composite microspheres were spherical with the average diameter of about 360 μm, and the microspheres exhibited three-dimensional network porous structure. FT-IR spectra showed that cellulose and sodium alginate were physically combined through hydrogen bonding and intermolecular interaction. The results of adsorption experiments showed that these composite microspheres had a strong adsorption capacity for phosphate in aqueous phase, and the adsorption capacity of phosphate on the composite microspheres increased with the increase of sodium alginate content. Among them, SACCM20 (mass fraction of sodium alginate 20%) had the strongest adsorption capacity for phosphate, and the adsorption efficiency could reach 85.58%.

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    Synthesis and Biological Activity of Isopimaric Furfural Acylhydrazone Derivatives
    Yanju LU,Zhendong ZHAO,Jing WANG,Shichao XU,Liangwu BI,Yuxiang CHEN
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 43-48.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.006
    Abstract147)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (533KB)(120)      

    Hydrazine of isopimaric acid was synthesized by first chlorination then reaction with hydrazine hydrate using isopimaric acid as raw material. A series of novel isopimaric furfural acylhydrazone derivatives such as isopimaric acid 2-furaldehyde acylhydrazone(4a), isopimaric acid(5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde) acylhydrazone(4b), isopimaric acid(5-hydroxymethylfurfural) acylhydrazone(4c), isopimaric acid(5-bromo-2-furaldehyde) acylhydrazone(4d) and isopimaric acid(5-hydroxymethylfurfural) acylhydrazone(4c), isopimaric acid(5-(4-bromopheny) furfural) acylhydrazone(4e) were synthesized by the condensation reactions of furfural with different substituent and intermediate hydrazine of isopimaric acid. The structures of isopimaric furfural acylhydrazone derivatives were characterized and indentified by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. The results showed that most of the target compounds exhibited a certain fungicidal activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidisand and S. aureus, in which the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of 4a against Klebsiella pneumoniae is 1.95 mg/L; the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) of 4c against Streptococcus pneumoniae is 0.98 mg/L. Compound 4d had inhibition rate of 75.17%, 82.33%, 78.52% and 80.97% against hepatocarcinoma cells(Hep G2), breast cancer cells(MDA-MB-231), prostate cancer(PC-3), and cervical cancer(Hela) at the concentration of 100 μmol/L; Compound 4e had inhibition rate of 93.68% against Hep G2 at the concentration of 100 μmol/L, indicating that compound 4e had a strong inhibitory activity on human hepatoma cells.

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    Research Progress of Forestry Biomass-based Film Preservatives of Fruit and Vegetable
    Jiali XU,Haibo ZHANG,Shufeng YAO,Hong GAO,Shibin SHANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 10-16.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.002
    Abstract144)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (740KB)(101)      

    Fruits and vegetables preservation is particularly important, since they are extremely perishable and have short shelf life. At present, the commonly used methods are cryopreservation and preservative treatment. Film preservation has attracted much interest due to its low cost and good effect. However, common chemical preservatives such as dibromotetrachloroethane and triazoles have certain harm against human health. Forestry biomass resources are environment-friendly and sustainable, so the preserving agent formulated with some forestry biomass has been widely applied. The applications of polysaccharides, shellac, rosin and other forestry biomass in fresh-keeping coating preservation of fruits and vegetables are summarized in this paper. The methods of coating film are discussed, and the prospects for the future development of the preservation of modified biomass-based coating film are proposed.

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    Preparation of Hydroxypropylated Alkali Lignin and Its Effecton Hydrolysis Efficiency of Cellulase
    Cunyi ZHAO,Wenjun YING,Zhengjun SHI,Haiyan YANG,Zhifeng ZHENG,Jing YANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (2): 109-114.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.02.016
    Abstract141)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (630KB)(95)      

    Alkali lignin (AL) was modified by hydroxypropylationto obtain hydroxypropylated lignin (HL), and its effects on enzymatic hydrolysis and non-productive enzyme adsorption were further investigated. The results of Zeta potentials, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrophobicity tests indicated that the surface charaoteristics of AL changed after hydroxypropylation. The surface negative charge increased and the surface elements distribution and chemical bonds composition changed greatly. The proportion of C—O and C—C═O bond increased, as well as the hydrophobicity decreased, resulting in the reducing of non-productive adsorption of cellulase onto HL, which significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. Compared with these of Avicel with AL, the free enzyme protein of Avicel with 4 g/L HL increased by 152 % and the 72 h hydrolysis yield of glucose increased by 32.09%.

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    Component and Antibacterial Activity of Different Polar Parts of Cinnamon and Homologous Root Bark
    Zuohui ZHANG,Xinyi QIAN,Guangzhi HUANG,Liangwu BI
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 115-122.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.016
    Abstract141)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (1206KB)(99)      

    The petroleum ether part, ethyl acetate part, n-butanol part and water part of cinnamon and root bark were obtained by reflux extraction with 80% ethanol and systematic solvent method, using cinnamon and its homologous root bark as raw materials. Their antibacterial activities against three common pathogens(Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were evaluated by the filter paper method. The results indicated that the qualities, the types and contents of components of each polar parts extracted from cinnamon and root bark of the same quality were different. The contents of the main components of the two petroleum ether parts were similar, but the contents of trans-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, were quite different. Flavonoids, saponins and polysaccharide were found respectively in the two ethyl acetate parts, n-butanol parts and water parts. Moreover, o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl acetate were found in ethyl acetate part, D-galactose was found in water part of root bark. The petroleum ether part of cinnamon, petroleum ether part and ethyl acetate part of root bark had a certain degree of antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. When the mass concentrations of these three parts were 500 g/L, the diameters of bacteriostasis circles for S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa were larger than(17.62±0.22), (25.21±2.09) and(12.82±0.30) mm, respectively. Ethyl acetate part of cinnamon had weaker antibacterial activity, n-butanol part and water part of both cinnamon and root bark had no antibacterial activity.

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    Preparation, Antibacterial Activity and Preservation of Lacquer Wax Composite Coating Preservative
    Xingying XUE,Hao ZHOU,Changwei ZHANG,Hongxia CHEN,Chengzhang WANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 123-128.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.017
    Abstract135)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (2032KB)(82)      

    Lacquer wax composite coating preservatives were made by adding different amounts of lacquer wax into 12% bleached shellac and used for the preservation of ponkan, and the antibacterial test of the preservatives was carried out as well. By investigating the stability of coating film, the optimized preparation conditions of lacquer wax composite coating wax were as follows:12.0% shellac, 1%-3% lacquer wax, stirring speed of 900 r/min, and dispersing time of 15 min. The results of antibacterial test showed that the antibacterial effects of the composite coating film on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the best under the conditions of the amount of lacquer wax 2%, and the inhibitory rates were 24.3%, 26.5% and 25.2%, respectively, which were higher than those of the shellac coating(the inhibition rates increased by 40.5%, 62.6% and 62.6%, respectively). The composite coating film displayed obvious preservation effects on the ponkan and effectively prolonged the preservation period. After storage for 20 days at room temperature, the rot rate of the samples treated by composite coating was only 1.0%. When the treated ponkan were stored for 60 d, the rot rate of treated samples was 10.0%, compared with the blank control(38.4%) and shellac coating samples(18.6%), the rot rate was lower by 28.4 and 8.6 percent point, respectively(P < 0.01).

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    Research Progress in Development and Application of Terpenoid Botanical Herbicides
    Shichao XU,Xiaojing ZENG,Huanhuan DONG,Zhendong ZHAO
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (2): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.02.001
    Abstract131)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (827KB)(177)      

    In this paper reviewed the recent research progress of terpene compounds and their derivatives in the application field of herbicides were reviewed. From the perspective of herbicidal application of natural terpenoid essential oil, pure terpenoid compounds and terpenoid derivatives, the exploration and application of terpene-based botanical herbicides in recent years were systematically induced and summarized. On this basis, the research status and achievements for the synthesis and herbicidal application of turpentine monoterpene derivatives were focused. The development direction and application prospect of terpene type botanical herbicides were also forecasted.

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    pH Responsiveness and in vitro Performance of Urushiol/Amphiphilic Copolymer mPEG-PBAE Micelles
    Hao ZHOU,Zhiwen QI,Yulu MA,Chengzhang WANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (2): 25-32.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.02.004
    Abstract128)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (1811KB)(84)      

    With methoxy polyethylene glycol with terminal amino group (mPEG-NH2), tetradecyl amine, 5-amino-1-pentanol, 1, 4-butanediol diacrylate and 1, 3-pentanediamine diacrylate as raw materials, the amphiphilic polymer poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (β-amino) ester (mPEG-PBAE) was synthesized by one-pot method. The structure, molecular weight and CMC of the amphiphilic polymer (mPEG-PBAE) were characterized by FT-IR, GPC and pyrene fluorescence probe. Using urushiol as the drug model molecule, the mPEG-PBAE polymer micelles loaded with urushiol were prepared by dialysis method. The particle size, Zeta potential and morphology of the micelles loaded with urushiol were characterized by TEM and DLS. The pH responsiveness, drug release and its in vitro antitumor activity were investigated. The results showed that the amphiphilic copolymer mPEG-PBAE was successfully prepared and the weight average relative molecular mass was 11 445, which was not significantly different from the designed theoretical relative molecular mass, the CMC value of the polymer was 18.25 mg/L. The entrapment efficiency was 82.29% and drug loading capacity was 23.21%, the appearance of drug loaded micelles was regular spherical structure, the size was uniform, and the average particle size was 160.1 nm. The Zeta potential value of drug loaded micelles was 33.6 mV, its particle size in the buffer solution of pH value 5.0 was significantly higher than that in solution of pH value 6.5 and 7.4, and had obvious pH responsiveness. When pH value was 5.0, the cumulative drug release rate in 72 h was 98.7%; when pH value was 6.5 and 7.4, the cumulative drug release rates in 72 h were 61.6% and 31.5%, respectively. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the drug loaded micelles on HepG2 and A549 tumor cells were 1.38 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively; which showed better in vitro antitumor activity than that of free urushiol.

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    Preparation and Properties of Waterborne Epoxy Curing Agents Based on Castor Oil
    Xiaohua YANG,Jinhua ZHU,Yan ZHANG,Shouhai LI,Mei LI
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 65-71.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.009
    Abstract128)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (606KB)(84)      

    The adducts MDI-RA were firstly synthesized from liquified diphenylmethane diisocyanate(MDI) and ricinoleic acid(RA). Then esterification reaction between ethylene diglycidyl ether and MDI-RA was carried out for the preparation of the castor oil based epoxy active intermediates(RAE). Finally, the chain reaction of RAE with diethylenetriamine(DETA) and glycidol was performed to obtained the waterborne epoxy curing agents based on castor oil. By this way, two kinds of target products(RAWCA-1 and RAWCA-2)were obtained from feeding ratio of the n(MDI):n(RA) of 1:3 and 1:4, respectively. The chemical structures of the intermediates and the target products were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR) and gel permeation chromatography(GPC). The results showed that the structure parameters of target products were basically agreed with the designed molecular structure and the Mn and Mw of target products were 1 832 g/mol and 1 983 g/mol. The property study showed that the target products could emulsify liquid epoxy resin E-51. The properties of the two-component film obtained from the curing reaction of RAWCA-1 and liquid epoxy resin E-51 were as follows:flexibility 1 mm, pencil hardness 3H, impact resistance 50 kg/cm, good water resistance, which could meet a requirement with commercial waterborne epoxy curing agent products.

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    Research Progress on Application of Cellulose-based Materials as Electrode in Flexible Supercapacitor
    Jianxiong XING,Kai ZHENG,Zunqiang HAN,Weitao XU,Kun WANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (4): 9-17.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.04.002
    Abstract127)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (5661KB)(114)      

    Cellulose has been increasingly utilized in the area of flexible supercapacitor, biosensor, and electromagnetic shielding because of its unique advantages of lightweight, biocompatibility and flexibility. The polyhydroxy structure of cellulose is beneficial for the transmission of electrolyte ions, resulting in the good performance of the electric capacity and cyclical stability for flexible electrode materials. Furthermore, flexible cellulose-based electrode can be obtained by coating, compounding, layer-by-layer self-assembling and in situ chemical polymerization with electroconductive materials(e.g., graphene, carbon nanotubes, conductive polymer and so on). Resent researches of the cellulose-based flexible electrode materials from different cellulose-based raw materials(original cellulose, nanocellulose and cellulose derivatives) were introduced in this review and the preparation methods and electrochemical properties of the obtained materials were also focused. The contributions of cellulose-based materials in the flexible electrode were categorized as:the backbone for supporting the flexible electrode material, the flexible substrates(or separator) and the ion channel for electrolyte. The future development and the challenges in the area of cellulose-based flexible electrode were also prospected.

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    Extraction and Properties Analysis of Polysaccharides, Extractum and Gutta-percha from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaves
    Xiyu QUAN,Pai PENG,Peiyao WEN,Jinjin WEI,Junhua ZHANG
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (2): 122-128.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.02.018
    Abstract124)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (699KB)(89)      

    In order to extract bioactive components and gutta-percha effectively from leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver, the successive extractions of the leaves by hot water, alkali, and enzyme-petroleum ether were used to obtain the extractum, polysaccharides(water-soluble polysaccharides and alkali-extracted polysaccharides) and gutta-percha, respectively. Effects of solid to liquid ratio and temperature on yields of bioactive components were investigated. Meanwhile, the effects of time and type of enzymes on enzymatic hydrolysis of the residues were discussed. Finally, the ferric reducing/antioxidant power and the scavenging DPPH radical activity of bioactive constituents, water-soluble and alkali-extracted polysaccharides were determined, and the molecular weights of gutta- percha were determined. The results showed that the highest yields of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid were 50.08 mg/g and 6.83 mg/g with solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 (g:mL)at 80 ℃. The water-soluble and alkali-extracted polysaccharides and extractum from E. ulmoides Oliver exhibited good antioxidant activity, in which the antioxidant activity of extractum was the highest. The total antioxidant activity of 5 g/L extractum was 4.01 mmol/L, and the scavenging rate of DPPH radical at 300 mg/L was 94.46%, which was the same as that of Vc. The hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were the highest when water-extracted residues of E. ulmoides leaves were hydrolysed for 48 h, which were 86.77% and 15.62%, respectively. The yields of extractum, water-soluble polysaccharides, alkali-extracted polysaccharides and gutta-pereha were 8.0%, 13.2%, 9.8%, 1.86%, respectively. The weight average relative molecular mass (Mw) and the number average relative molecular mass (Mn) of gutta-pereha were 330 398 and 84 526, respectively, which were higher than the molecular weights of polysaccharides. Meanwhile, Mw/Mn=3.91, and the dispersity of extractum was lower than that of polysaccharides.

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    Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Larch-based Carbon Spheres via Spray Pyrolysis
    Yulong SONG,Wei LI,Zhou XU,Shouxin LIU
    Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (2): 9-15.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.02.002
    Abstract124)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (6918KB)(96)      

    Larch-based carbon spheres (LCSs) were prepared via spray pyrolysis with larch sawdust as raw materials. Larch-based resin obtained by liquefied larch wood powder and formaldehyde was used as carbon precursor. The effects of different carbonization temperatures and mass fractions of larch-based resin on the particle size, pore structure, specific surface area and electrochemical properties of LCSs were investigated. The surface morphology, pore structure, crystal structure and graphitization degree of LCSs were characterized by SEM, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD and Raman. The electrochemical performance of the samples was investigated by electrochemical workstation. The results showed that the prepared LCSs were amorphous with regular spherical structures. The specific surface area of the LCSs3 fabricated at 900 ℃ was as high as 626.6 m2/g, with the pore volume 0.345 cm3/g. The specific capacitance was 309 F/g at current density of 0.2 A/g in 6 mol/L KOH electrolyte. When the current density increased to 5 A/g, its specific capacitance retention rate was 56%, indicating excellent rate performance.

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