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Thermal Properties and Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Tannic Acid
Yuxin LU, Lingang LU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 83-89.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.011
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Tannic acid(TA) is a kind of multi hydroxyl aromatic biomass. The thermal properties of TA were analyzed by thermogravimetric experiment, the carbonization process of TA was observed by muffle furnace heating experiment, the apparent activation energy was observed by KAS and Ozawa method, and the most probable function was determined by Satava method. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that TA entered the state of rapid weight loss at about 182 ℃; when the temperature reached 800 ℃, the carbon residue of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 15.29%. In air atmosphere, the carbon residue was 1.97% due to the second rapid weight loss in the temperature range of 436-538 ℃. It was found in the macro carbonization experiment that TA would form an expanded carbon layer when heated. Among them, a hollow carbon layer appeared at 100-200 ℃, and a solid carbon layer was formed at 300-400 ℃, which had obvious expansion, integrity, compactness and good gloss. It had the potential to become a new carbon source in intumescent flame retardants. The results of thermal decomposition kinetics showed that the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 494 kJ/mol, lgA was 111.32, and the most probable mechanism function of rapid weight loss stage was G(α)=[-ln(1-α)]1/n, n=0.105 3, and its thermal decomposition mechanism belonged to random nucleation and subsequent nucleation growth reaction.

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Development Status and Prospect of Biomass Gasification Technology
Xueqin LI, Peng LIU, Youqing WU, Tingzhou LEI, Shiyong WU, Sheng HUANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 113-121.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.016
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In order to promote the development of biomass gasification technology and the utilization of gasification products, the development and industrial status of biomass gasification technology, gasifier type and its development status at home and abroad were mainly introduced, and the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification technology were analyzed. At the same time, it is also found that China's biomass resources had great potential and biomass energy had the excellent characteristics of renewability, such as renewable, less pollution, large reserves, wide distribution, zero carbon emissions and so on. However, it was difficult to internationalize because of a series of problems such as imperfect of collection-storage-transportation system, shortage of capital chain and more by-products. It was further prospected that biomass gasification in China should not only take a basic research, but also consider the overall demand of biomass gasification technology and the competition with other technologies as the future development direction and important key point. This paper was expected to lay a solid foundation for the further development of biomass gasification technology and the high-value utilization of gasification products.

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Research Progress of Biomass-based Stimulus-responsive Hydrogels
Yupeng LIU, Peipei KUANG, Ying CHEN, Jifu WANG, Chunpeng WANG, Fuxiang CHU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 126-134.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.017
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Stimulus-responsive hydrogels, as a new class of functional polymer materials, can actively sense the difference of the external environment and reflect the change to the outside world by specific ways such as swelling or contraction, and show a great application potential in many fields of life and production. As a renewable natural resources, biomass has been widely applied in the preparation of stimulus-responsive hydrogels in recent years. Particularlly for rapid development of engineering technology and applications, including controllable/active polymerization and click chemistry, dynamic covalent bond, supramolecular self-assembly and super molecular aggregation state regulatory molecules, etc, is able to overcome the instrisic structure defects of biomass macromolecule to a certain extent, and fabricate the stimulus-responsive hydrogels containing unique molecular structure of biomass raw materials, which promoted the development of new green synthesis strategies, multi-functional technology, simple modular synthesis technology, modern biotechnology and other technologies. Based on the stimulus-responsive methods and types of stimulus-responsive hydrogels, this paper assembles six types of hydrogels, including temperature response, acid-base response, light response, electric response, magnetic response and multiple response and highlights the effect of the unique molecular structure of biomass raw materials on the performance of the stimulus-responsive hydrogels. Also, the applications of biomass-based hydrogels with different environmental responses in the fields of drug controlled release, biological tissue engineering, biosensors, adsorption materials, cell culture and antibacterial materials were summarized, and the future development direction of biomass-based hydrogels was prospected.

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Recent Progress in Preparation and Application of Bio-based Hydrogels
Shuo WANG, Yonggui WANG, Zefang XIAO, Yanjun XIE
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 122-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.017
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Firstly, this review introduced the research background and application status of bio-based hydrogels. According to the different crosslinking mechanisms, physical and chemical hydrogels were classified and described. Then, the hydrogels prepared from cellulose, chitosan, protein and other bio-based materials were summarized based on the classification of the used biomass, including the solvents system of cellulose, the preparation of cellulose-based hydrogels and modification of cellulose derivatization. Also, the feedstock sources and modification methods of chitosan-based hydrogels, as well as cross-linking mechanisms such as electrostatic interaction and imine bond formed by amine groups on their molecular chains were assembled. Protein-based hydrogels with good biocompatibility and bioactivity, formed by β-folded self-assembly of polypeptide chains were depicted as well in this review. Similarly, bio-based hydrogels prepared by using physical or chemical crosslinking of hydrophilic natural polymers such as starch, sodium alginate and carrageenan, were introduced respectively. At the same time, the main applications of functionalized bio-based hydrogels in the biomedical fields were described in detail, including drug sustained release, targeted delivery, cell media, tissue repair scaffolds, wound dressings, etc. In addition, the application and research progress of bio-based hydrogels as adsorbent materials in environmental field were reviewed, and their applications in packaging, sensing, photoelectric catalysis and other fields were also highlighted. Finally, the development opportunities and challenges of bio-based hydrogels were summarized, and the future research directions were prospected.

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The Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activities of Cinnamon Essential Oil and Cinnamaldehyde
Lu LU, Chengjie SHU, Ling GE, Jiechen PAN, Kai ZHU, Baojun SHI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 105-110.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.014
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The antibacterial effects of cinnamon essential oil and cinnamaldehyde on bacteria(Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi(Candida albicans) were compared by filter paper method, minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC). The antioxidant activities of cinnamon essential oil and cinnamaldehyde were compared by ABTS+· scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power(FRAP), as well as their antityrosinase activities were compared. The results showed that the two research subjects showed different sensitivities to the inhibitory effects of the five tested strains, and both had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans. According to the results of MIC and MBC, cinnamic essential oil and cinnamaldehyde had different inhibitory effects on the tested strains, among which the inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde on S. aureus, C. albicans and P. aeruginosa were obviously better than those of cinnamon essential oil. The antioxidant activity of cinnamic essential oil was better than that of cinnamaldehyde. The ABTS+· scavenging rate(94.1%) of 16 g/L cinnamic essential oil was 3 times that of the same concentration of cinnamic aldehyde. The FRAP value(1 502 μmol/L) was 5.8 times that of cinnamaldehyde at the same concentration. Both cinnamon essential oil and cinnamon aldehyde could significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity. The IC50 of cinnamon essential oil to tyrosinase was 4.02 g/L, while the IC50 of cinnamaldehyde to tyrosinase was less than 1.25 g/L.

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Preparation of Copper Loaded Activated Carbon and Its Adsorption Performance of Gaseous Benzene
Zhou XU, Wei LI, Shouxin LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.001
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The modified coconut shell activated carbons were prepared by loading CuCl2, carbonization and CO2 activation. The Cu-loaded activated carbons were labeled as AC3, AC4, AC5, and AC7 to represent the mass fractions of cupric salt solutions 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. The Cu-loaded activated carbons were characterized by means of N2 adsorption isotherm, SEM, XRD and XPS. Their dynamic adsorption-desorption performance was measured by the gravimetric method. After modification, the acidic oxygenated groups on the surface of activated carbon decreased. The results showed that cupric salt existed in two forms, i.e., CuO and Cu2O. It was found that the presence of Cu loading led to the decreasing of surface area and pore volume of modified sample, and the increasing of the surface area and proportion of micropore. AC5 showed the largest values of the surface area(733.20 m2/g) and proportion(72.99%) of micropore. Furthermore, AC5 had the optimal equilibrium adsorption capacity(356.40 mg/g) which increased by 33.38% compared to the raw sample, and the optimal equilibrium adsorption time(118.80 min) which increased by 33.38%. Moreover, the adsorption performance of AC5 was better than the activated carbons in the organic gas filter cartridge(3M-3301 CN and 3M-6001 CN). After five cycles of adsorbents regeneration test, 80% of adsorption capability was still able to be reserved. The Cu-loaded activated carbons improved the adsorption performance by transforming the style from physical adsorption to physical-chemical adsorption through complexation of π-bonds in benzene with hollow d-orbitals in Cu2+.

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Recent Progresses on the Catalytic Synthesis of Levulinate Esters
Lei LI, Minchao WANG, Jiao MA, Zhanwei XU, Yajing ZHANG, Songyan JIA
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 135-146.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.018
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In recent years, levulinic acid has been considered as a key biobased platform compound and attracted wide attention, which can be utilized in the synthesis of many high value-added chemicals. Among them, levulinates, as a class of important chemical products, can be used in alternative fuels, edible spices, plasticizers and other fields, especially as alternative fuels, which provides a feasible reference scheme for sustainable development. In this paper, the recent research progress on the catalytic synthesis of levulinates in the field of biomass conversion was reviewed. The reaction performances and related mechanisms were introduced involving in several approaches, such as the esterification of levulinic acid, the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol, the conversion of monosaccharides and cellulosic materials, respectively. The synthesis of levulinates was summarized and prospected.

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Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystal/Gold Nanoparticle Composite Iridescent Film
Jiacheng MENG, Mingcong XU, Shouxin LIU, Wei LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 49-56.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.007
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The filter paper was used as raw material to prepare cellulose nanocrystals(CNCs) and gold nanoparticles(GNPs) were prepared by sodium citrate reduction method. Subsequently, CNCs/GNPs composite iridescence was prepared by blending GNPs and CNCs at different mass ratios, following by adding fructose to the above system in order to study the influence of fructose on the plasmon absorption resonance effect. Then, the composite films were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD), ultraviolet-visible(UV) spectroscopy and circular dichroism(CD). The results showed that CNCs have self-assembled during the film formation process and formed a left-handed chiral layered liquid crystal structure; the composite film had obvious iridescent color, periodic layered structure and fingerprint texture. The addition of GNPs did not change the CNCs itself, but the composite membrane had obvious plasmon resonance absorption peak and blue-shifted. Moreover, the addition of fructose could make the color of the film red-shifted and promote the more uniform dispersion of GNPs, thereby enhancing the plasmon resonance absorption effect of GNPs. Particularly, the addition of GNPs and fructose did not change the crystal structure of CNCs, nor did it affect the crystallinity of cellulose.

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Composition Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Cinnamon Polysaccharide
Shengnan LI, Xian CHENG, Liangwu BI, Weixing ZENG, Yuxiang CHEN, Zhendong ZHAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 34-40.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.005
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In order to explore the antioxidant activity of cinnamon polysaccharides, the protein was removed from the water extract of cinnamon(CE)to obtain crude polysaccharides. By using cellulose ion column DE-52 and propylene dextran gel S-300, the cinnamon neutral polysaccharides(CNP) was obtained. The relative molecular mass(Mr) of CNP was determined by gel permeation chromatography(GPC), and the monosaccharide component of CNP were determined by pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography. The connection modes of its monosaccharides were determined by methylation method and nuclear magnetic resonance method. The in vitro chemical model was used to study the scavenging effects of CNP on DPPH· and ABTS+·. The results indicated that the weight average relative molecular mass(Mw) of CNP was 3 630 and the main monosaccharide was glucose. Three kinds of connection modes of monosaccharides were 1, 4, 5-Ac3-2, 3, 6-Me3-Glu, 1, 5-Ac2-2, 3, 4, 6-Me4-Glu, and 1, 5, 6-Ac3-2, 3, 4-Me3-Glu. The determination results of free radicals scavenging by CNP showed that when the mass concentration of CNP was 2 g/L, the DPPH· scavenging rate reached the maximum of 84%, the ABTS+· scavenging rate reached 60%. Although the free radical scavenging rate of CNP was lower than that of Vc, the DPPH· scavenging effect was comparable to that of Vc when the concentration of CNP reached 0.5 g/L. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of cinnamon neutral polysaccharide was good and had good development value.

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Dehydroabietic Acid Triarylamine-based Acrylonitrile Compounds: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties
Yanan GAO, Liwei DOU, Jie SONG, Hong GAO, Shibin SHANG, Zhanqian SONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 10-18.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.002
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Compounds methyl (Z)-6-((4-(5-(2-(3, 5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-cyanovinyl)thiophen-2-yl) phen-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)-7-isopropyl-1, 4a-dimethyl-1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 9, 10, 10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate(2) and dimethyl 6, 6'-(((1-cyanoethene-1, 2-diyl)bis(thiophene-5, 2-diyl))bis(4, 1-phenylene))bis((4-methoxyphen-yl)azanediyl))(E)-bis(7-isopropyl-1, 4a-dimethyl-1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 9, 10, 10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate)(3) were obtained simply by mixing 5-(dehydroabietic acid triarylamine)-thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and 3, 5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetonitrile at room temperature and 100 ℃, respectively. The UV-Vis absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, solvatochromism effect, aggregation-induced emission(AIE) characteristics, thermal stability and electrochemical performance of compounds are studied, and the relationship between their structure and performance is further studied through theoretical calculations. Compared with triarylamine-based acrylonitrile compounds, after introducing the dehydroabietic acid skeleton, the compounds show a larger stokes shift and longer red light emission in the solid state. 2 exhibits AIE characteristics, while 3 does not have AIE characteristics. Both of the two compounds have good thermal stability and morphological stability. 2 and 3 have higher highest occupied molecular orbital(HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital(LUMO) energy levels and narrow band gap, due to the introduction of dehydroabietic acid skeleton.

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Preparation of Cellulose Nanofiber-based Flexible Pressure Sensors via Electrospun and Its Performance
Cuihuan LI, Sheng CHEN, Jianzhen MAO, Jiahui MU, Ziqiang SHAO, Feng XU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 1-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.001
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Cellulose acetate nanofibers(CANFs)were prepared by electrospinning cellulose acetate(CA), followed by deacetylation to obtain cellulose nanofibers(CNFs). Subsequentially, in-situ polymerization of polypyrrole was perform to fabricate the conductive composite nanofibers(CNFs-PPy), which was combined with cellulose paper as a flexible substrate for assembling a flexible pressure sensor. The materials were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM, and the mechanical and sensing performance of the devices were analyzed using a universal material testing machine and an electrochemical workstation. The results showed that polypyrrole was successfully coated on the surface of cellulose nanofibers, and the nitrogen content of composite nanofiber was 24.8%. The current-voltage curves of the sensor maintained a good linear relationship under 1-15 kPa pressure load, and the relative current change rate increased with increasing pressure. The sensitivity values of the sensor were up to 1.77 kPa-1 in the range of low pressure(0-0.99 kPa), 0.43 kPa-1 in the range of medium pressure(1.00-8.33 kPa) and 0.22 kPa-1 in high pressure(8.53-15 kPa), respectively. The sensor had excellent signal reliability and stability, i.e., the sensing signal remained stable after 3 000 cycles of loading. The sensor could realize the real-time monitoring of external pressure changes such as finger touch, which provided a new insights into the development of green electronics.

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Power Generation Performance of Lignin in Direct Biomass Fuel Cell
Yifei DU, Yue PU, Liping ZHANG, Qiang ZHAO, Xianliang SONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 75-82.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.010
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By changing the solvent system and pretreatment conditions, a series of studies were carried out on the electricity generation performance of the four types of lignin (enzymatic hydrolysis lignin(EHL), alkaki lignin(AL), sodium ligninsulfonate(SL) and furfural residue(FR))in direct biomass fuel cells. The UV spectrum, FT-IR spectrum and 1H NMR spectrum before and after the reaction of alkali lignin were analyzed. The results showed that the alkali lignin exhibited the best power generation performance, the open circuit voltage(OCV) could reach 392.7 mV, and the peak power density(PPD) was 0.198 W/m2. And lignin had the best power generation performance in NaOH solution. Water bath heating pretreatment could improve the power generation performance of lignin. The higher the temperature and the longer the treatment time, the better the power generation performance of the lignin would be. When lignin was irradiated with ultraviolet light, the electricity production performance increased first and then decreased with the passage of time. The electricity production performance was the best when it was treated for 24 hours. The OCV could be increased to 431.2 mV, and PPD was increased to 0.371 W/m2. After the oxidation reaction in the fuel cell, the benzene ring structure of lignin had been destroyed to a certain extent, and the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring had been oxidized to a carbonyl structure. The UV absorption peak of alkali lignin produced red-shift and color enhancement effects. And in the FT-IR spectrum, the carbonyl absorption peak was enhanced. Especially, the signals of aromatic protons, phenolic hydroxyl groups and aliphatic hydroxyl groups were weakened in 1H NMR spectrum.

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Optimization and Kinetics of Hydrolysis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
Shuai WANG, Xing TANG, Yong SUN, Xianhai ZENG, Lu LIN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 65-74.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.009
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The hydrolysis of 5-chloromethyl furfural(CMF) in pure water or water/acetone system to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural(HMF) was studied. The effects of hydrolysis reaction conditions(such as solvent system, alkali neutralizer, temperature and CMF addition amount) on the hydrolysis of CMF were investigated, and the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction was analyzed. The results showed that the water/acetone system is helpful to reduce the side reaction of HMF, and the addition of sodium disulfite(Na2S2O4) could further prevent the generation of humus. The optimal hydrolysis conditions are as follows: 1 g CMF was added with 0.35 g CaCO3 in a mixture of 10 mL water/acetone with volume ratio of 1∶4, and incubated at 353.15 K for 28 min. Under these conditions, the CMF conversion rate was 97%, the yield of HMF was 85%, and the yield of by-product levulinic acid(LA) was 6%. The separation rate of HMF increased from 50% to 86% with the addition of Na2S2O4. The kinetic study results showed that the activation energy of CMF hydrolysis was 12.3 kJ/mol and the hydrolysis rate constant k1=5.56exp(-1.23×104/RT) in water/acetone system.

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Synthesis of Blue and Green Lignin-based Luminescent Carbon Dots by Hydrothermal-Nitric Acid Oxidation
Ying WANG, Bang AN, Mingcong XU, Jinquan YUE, Shouxin LIU, Wei LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 33-39.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.005
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Blue luminescent carbon quantum dots(B-CQDs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using lignin and m-phenylenediamine as precursors. Green luminescent carbon quantum dots(G-CQDs) were synthesized by nitric acid oxidation. The optical properties and structures characteristics of these two CQDs were characterized by UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, TEM, FT-IR and XPS. The cytotoxicity and cell imaging properties of G-CQDs were also tested. The results showed that nitric acid played an important role in the synthesis of G-CQDs. The oxidation of nitric acid increased the graphite N content, deepened the graphitization, passivated the surface state, and red-shifted the fluorescence emission wavelength. The results of structural characterization showed that the prepared B-CQDs and G-CQDs were mainly composed of C, N and O elements. All of them had abundant hydrophilic groups such as —OH, —NH, C—O and —COOH on the surface, which were monodisperse in water with the average particle size were 1.3 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. The results of optical property analysis showed that the excitation wavelengths of B-CQDs and G-CQDs were Ex=392 nm and Ex=446 nm, and the corresponding emission wavelengths were 488 nm and 514 nm, respectively. They exhibited excitation-dependent fluorescence emission behavior and excitation-independent emission behavior, respectively. The results revealed that the possible emission mechanism of G-CQDs belonged to the bandgap fluorescence emissions based on conjugated π-domains. The synthesized G-CQDs with excellent photoluminescence, stable fluorescence and low cytotoxicity could be applied to bioimaging of HeLa cells.

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Preparation, Characterization and Electrochemical Performance of N, P Co-doped Cattail-derived Carbon Aerogels
Ju HUANG, Jiaming SUN, Kun ZHANG, Zhenwei WU, Wei LI, Shouxin LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.001
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N and P co-doped carbon aerogels(NPCA) were prepared from cattail inflorescence with NH4H2PO4 as dopant by pretreatment with acidic sodium chlorite, ultrasonic cell fragmentation, freeze-drying and carbonization at high temperature. The surface morphology, pore structure, crystalline structure and surface chemical composition of NPCA were characterized by SEM, N2 adsorption/desorption, XRD and XPS. The effects of doping amounts and carbonization temperatures on the electrochemical properties of NPCA were systematically studied. The results of research showed that NPCA was a three-dimensional network structure that composed of amorphous carbon. The nitrogen element on the surface of NPCA existed in the form of pyridine nitrogen(N-6), pyrrole nitrogen(N-5), graphitization nitrogen(N-Q) and oxidation state of nitrogen(N-X), and the phosphorus element existed in the form of P—O and P—C. The pore structure and surface chemical structure of NPCA were greatly affected by doping amount of NH4H2PO4 and carbonization temperature. The optimum preparation conditions of NPAC were that the mass ratio of cattail-based cellulose to ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was 1∶2 and the carbonization temperature was 800 ℃. The NPAC-2-800 prepared under this condition has rich pore structure and surface functional groups. Furthermore, the specific surface area was 599.88 m2/g, the total pore volume was 0.27 cm3/g, the micropore volume was 0.20 cm3/g, and the average pore size was 3.69 nm, the N and P contents of NPCA were 5.69% and 5.12%, respectively. The electrochemical properties of the NPCA were measured by three electrode system in 6 mol/L KOH solution. The specific capacitance of NPCA-2-800 was 249 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g, which was 133.4% higher than that of the undoped sample(106.7 F/g), and had good rate performance.

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Synthesis and Biological Activity of N-( α-Eleostearic Acyl) Triazole Derivatives
Jiang CHENG, Pujun XIE, Lixin HUANG, Caihong ZHANG, Lujie LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 27-33.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.004
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A series of N-(α-eleostearic acyl) triazole compounds derived from α-eleostearic acid were synthesized: N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-3, 5-dibromo-1, 2, 4-triazole(3a), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole(3b), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-3-sulfhydryl-1, 2, 4-triazole(3c), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-5-nitro-1, 2, 4-triazole(3d), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1, 2, 3-benzotriazole(3e), 3-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole(3f), 4-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1, 2, 4-triazole(3g). The products were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. The results of biological activity experiments showed that compound 3a and 3e had inhibitory effect on hepatocarcinoma cells Hep G2, rectal carcinoma cells DLD-1 and breast cancer cells MCF-7. The 50% inhibition concentration(IC50) of compound 3d on MCF-7 was 25.12 μmol/L, which was better than the IC50 of 5-fluorouracil(5-Fu). All compounds had good inhibitory activity against Candida albicans, and inhibitory activities on against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were not significant. The IC50 of compound 3e against Candida albicans was 22.96 mg/L, which was similar to 5-flucytosine and indicated that it had the potential of drug development.

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Synthesis and Properties of a Rosin-based Anionic Surfactant with Azobenzene Group
Shengfeng YE, Zhaolan ZHAI, Shibin SHANG, Zhanqian SONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 57-64.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.008
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A rosin-based anionic surfactant with azobenzene group named sodium 4-maleopimaric acid ethyl ester azophenol(E-MPA-AZO-Na) was synthesized through D-A addition, amidation, diazotization, coupling reaction, esterification, and acid-base neutralization using rosin as raw material. Its structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR. The surface activities and foam properties were investigated by surface tension method, Nile red(NR) fluorescence probe method and polarizing microscope. The results showed that the critical micelles concentration(Ccmc) of surfactant E-MPA-AZO-Na was only 0.035 mmol/L, the surface tension at the Ccmc(λcmc) was 47.11 mN/m, and the minimum area per molecule(amin) was 1.35 nm2, which meant that E-MPA-AZO-Na possesses excellent surface activities. Stable foams could be stabilized when the concentrations of E-MPA-AZO-Na were 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 mmol/L. Better foaming abilities, smaller foam size and more stable foam emerged with increasing E-MPA-AZO-Na concentration. What's more, the half-life time of the foams formed at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 mmol/L were 1 292, 1 770 and 2 534 min, respectively, indicated that E-MPA-Azo-Na possessed outstanding foam stability.

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Synthesis of Ethyl Cellulose, Gum Rosin and Fatty Acid Based Polymer and Its Application Performance as Pressure Sensitive Adhesive
Xiaoliang GUO, Simai QI, Chunpeng WANG, Fuxiang CHU, Jifu WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 90-96.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.012
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Gum rosin derived methacrylate(GRGMA) was firstly synthesized by the esterification reaction between gum rosin(GR) and glycidyl methacrylate(GMA). Subsequently, atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP) was applied to fabricate ethyl cellulose-gum rosin-fatty acid derived co-polymer(EC-R-LMA). The structure and properties of GRGMA and EC-R-LMA were then characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, DSC, TG/DTG, universal tensile machine and contact angle measurement. It was found that the monomer conversion was higher than 90%. With the increase of the molar ratio of GRGMA from 10% to 70%, the Tg of EC-R-LMA increased from -61.3 ℃ to 62.58 ℃. Particularly, when the molar ratio of GRGMA increased from 30% to 35%, the tensile strength at break increased from 0.41 MPa to 0.50 MPa, whereas the tensile strength at break of the cross-linking polymer(BMI-EC-R-LMA) increased to 1.04 and 1.27 MPa respectively after cross-linking. It was also observed that when the molar ratio of GRGMA and LMA was set to 1∶9 and 2∶8, the Tg of EC-R-LMAs were -61.3 ℃ and -52.9 ℃, respectively, which could be used as a pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA). Notably, GRGMA acted as a new type of hard monomer for the PSA rather than as a tackifying resin. While the molar content of GRGMA increased from 10% to 20%, the 180° peel strength of PSA increased from 0.56 N/cm to 1.08 N/cm, and the shear resistance property increased from 2 h to more than 72 h.

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Application of Aspen Plus in Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment for Ethanol Production: A Review
Fang WANG, Hongdan ZHANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 119-130.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.017
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Pretreatment was a key step in sugar platform -based biomass refinery using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used methods such as dilute acid/alkali, steam explosion, liquid hot water, microwave, subcritical CO2, ionic liquids, deep-eutectic solvents, organosolv, milling/grinding, and biological, and the research progress of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were reviewed. Furthermore, the application of the co-production of ethanol and platform chemicals in the pretreatment of biomass feedstock at home and abroad based on Aspen Plus and techno-economic analysis were introduced. Finally, the drawbacks of Aspen Plus in biomass pretreatment for ethanol production were summarized and the further research directions were proposed.

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The Adsorption Performance of Wear Elements in Lubricant by Activated Carbon
Ruting XU, Jian ZHAO, Kang SUN, Xincheng LU, Yanping ZHANG, Jianchun JIANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 25-32.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.004
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By using different activated carbons as adsorbents, the effects of pore size distribution and surface properties on the adsorption capacity of activated carbon for lubricant wear elements were studied, which based on the analysis of activated carbon by basic properties, specific surface area and pore structure, FT-IR, XPS and surface functional group analysis. The results showed that the mesopore volume and the contents of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of activated carbon were the key factors affecting the adsorption capacity. Moreover, the adsorption effect of activated carbon on wear elements in simulated oil continuously increased with the increasing of the mesopore volume and the content of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. Among the six kinds of activated carbons, AC4 with a mesopore volume of 0.901 cm3/g and a total carboxyl and hydroxyl group contents of 0.929 2 mmol/g, exhibited the best wear elements removal performances. Under the optimal adsorption conditions of temperature 80 ℃, adsorption time 60 min and additive amount of activated carbon 5%, the removal rates of Fe, Cu, Pb and Al in the simulated lubricant by AC4 were more than 95%. The removal effect of wear elements by activated carbon was significantly better than that of sawdust, activated clay, silica gel and filter paper, indicating that activated carbon could be used as an excellent adsorbent for waste lubricating oil regeneration and the high-performance material of oil filter.

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