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Myo-inositol Metamolism as the Precursor of Xylan and Pectin in Plants
ZHANG Meng;XIE Yi-min;YANG Hai-tao;YAO Lan
   2013, 33 (5): 106-114.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.05.021
Abstract2666)      PDF(pc) (3794KB)(952)       Save
Inositol, known as cyclohexanehexol, has very important biological functions in the growth of plants. The myo-inositol is the most abundant isomer of inositol in plants which is formed by glucose cyclization catalyzed by hexokinase, myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase and alkaline phosphatase. It takes part in some vital oxidation pathway in plants. Cell wall formation has a close relationship with the metabolism of myo-inositol. Xylan and pectin are important contents of cell wall polysaccharides can be formed by myo-inositol oxidation pathway. This provides important basis for the study of the linkage between xylan and pectin and lignin in plant cell wall by isotopic tracer method. This also contributes to the study of plant fiber chemistry and pulp and paper science.
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Research Progress in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins
Qian XU,Chen ZHANG,Jiawei WU,Jia OUYANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.001
Abstract2658)   HTML1967701126)    PDF(pc) (3662KB)(1455)       Save

Anthocyanin is a kind of flavonoid which mainly exists in plants. It has strong biological activities such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidation, and is widely used in the field of nutrition and health care. Most anthocyanins are extracted directly from plants by physical or chemical means, but the yield is low, and the extracted anthocyanins are mostly mixtures due to the restrictions of time, region and season. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins have attracted much attention by researchers worldwide in recent years. As the biosynthesis of anthocyanins can be controlled artificially and the purity of the obtained products is high, it has been widely studied. Anthocyanins cannot exist stably in the environment, and need to be modified by glycosylation, acylation and methylation to increase their stability. The modified anthocyanins can be synthesized by microorganisms and significant color changes can be seen in the medium. The biosynthesis and modification of anthocyanins were reviewed in this paper, and the preparation technology of anthocyanin synthesis from plants and microorganisms was briefly introduced, the factors affecting anthocyanin synthesis were analyzed, and finally the future research direction of anthocyanin was predicted.

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Progress on Preparation and Application of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
Si LU,Qiong WANG,Xun LI,Wei QI,Zhongming WANG,Zhenhong YUAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (1): 13-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.01.002
Abstract2516)   HTML3049424)    PDF(pc) (786KB)(1531)       Save

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is one of the most important biomass-based platform molecules and widely used in the preparation of multifunctional compounds such as fine chemicals, key pharmaceutical intermediates, functional polyesters, solvents and liquid fuels. At present, the preparation of HMF is a hot spot in the field of biomass research, and the raw materials and methods for preparing HMF have been continuously expanded. This paper reviews the main preparation methods and research progress of HMF. Catalysis systems for HMF preparation is systematically described, including the types of the catalysts (mineral acids, ionic liquids, metal chlorides, solid acids and others) used in the catalytic process and the solvent systems. Then, the preparation paths and applications of important derivatives from HMF are summarized. Finally, suggestions for future research on HMF are provided based on the understanding of problems existing in the current research.

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Review on Phosphoric Acid Activation for Preparation of Activated Carbon (Ⅰ):Roles of Phosphoric Acid
ZUO Songlin
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2017, 37 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.03.001
Abstract2446)      PDF(pc) (2451KB)(1444)       Save
Phosphoric acid activation is a principal method of the chemical activations to produce activated carbons, and has a history of around 30 years in the laboratory-scale investigation and the industrial application. In this article, the author systemically reviewed the roles that phosphoric acid played in the process of H 3PO 4 activation for the first time. From the chemical point of view, phosphoric acid played in promoting hydrolysis of biopolymers in lignocellulosic materials (1), catalyzing dehydration of biopolymers (2) and aromatization reaction of carbon atoms (3), initiating crosslink reaction with biopolymers (4), and evolution of pores (5). Moreover, three sequential stages were considered to be necessary for the deep incorporation of H 3PO 4 solution into the interior of botanic structures, which include fast diffusion, hydrolysis and post diffusion. Meantime, the roles that the activating agents play in H 3PO 4 activation and ZnCl 2 activation are compared.
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Synthesis of Methyleugenol with Dimethyl Carbonate as Methylating Agent
SUN Li-yuan;ZHU Kai
   2013, 33 (2): 139-143.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.02.025
Abstract2414)      PDF(pc) (855KB)(1270)       Save
Methyleugenol was prepared from eugenol in the presence of potassium carbonate (K 2CO 3), using dimethyl carbonate(DMC) as methylating agent instead of the conventional toxic agents. Using the yield of methyleugenol as the evalution index, central composite design process was used to optimize the methylation reaction of eugenol and DMC. An optimum reaction condition for the preparation of the targeted product was as follows, reaction temperature 155 ℃, the amount of K 2CO 3 6.12 %(mea-sured by the molar ratio of eugenol), the molar ratio of DMC and eugenol 4.3:1 and reaction time 6 h. Under this condition the conversion rate reached 96.16 %. Meanwhile, repeated experiments showed that the reaction process was easy to be controlled and excellent repetitiveness can be acquired. GC-MS and IR spectral analysis were employed to confirm the structure of the product.
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Application of Rosin in Wood Preservation
LI Shu-jun;NGUYEN Thi-thanh-hien;HAN Shi-yan;LI Jian
   2011, 31 (5): 117-121.  
Abstract1953)      PDF(pc) (962KB)(966)       Save
The present application of rosin in wood preservation includes reducing moisture absorption of wood, improving water-based wood preservatives fixation, and preparing active rosin derivatives to wood-decay fungi. Wood-decay resitance can be improved by high concentration rosin emulsion treatment. Rosin emulsion treatment at even a low concentration could well fix leachable copper salts in wood. Rosin amine and quaternary ammonium salt derivatives could protect wood from fungal attack. Effects of imidazoline and other bioactive derivatives need more tests.
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Thermal Stability of Gallic Acid
GUO Man-man;XIAO Zhuo-bing;PENG Mi-jun;YU Hua-zhong;GUO Rui-ke
   2012, 32 (4): 58-62.  
Abstract1948)      PDF(pc) (1074KB)(1743)       Save
Thermal decomposing curves of gallic acid in different heating speeds were obtained in the nitrogen atmosphere by TG-DTG techniques. Two analysis methods of Achar and Coats-Redfern were used to speculate the probable mechanism of thermal decomposing reaction and the kinetic parameters. The shelf life of gallic acid at room temperature was calculated by the kinetic parameters of the first stage. With the increasing of the heating rate, thermal decomposing tempreture of gallic acid rose. The most probable kinetic mechanisms of the three-stage thermal decomposition were all chemical reactions, and the corresponding mechanisms followed on reaction order. In accordance with the data of TG and Gaussian, one molecule of gallic acid lost 0.5 atom O at the fisrt-stage, and lost another 0.5 atom O and a molecule CO 2 at the second stage. The shelf life of gallic acid at room temperature was about 1.5-2 years.
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Research Progress on Modification and Application of Cellulose Acetate
Huimin ZHOU,Jie LU,Yi CHENG,Yanna LYU,Haisong WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.04.001
Abstract1947)   HTML1144558571)    PDF(pc) (6071KB)(1565)       Save

The hydrophilic, ductile, thermoplastic and biodegradable properties of cellulose acetate (CA) were introduced, and the basic structure and market application of three kinds of cellulose acetate were summarized.It was pointed out that CA still had some disadvantages such as poor thermal stability at high temperature, low mechanical strength and easily being contaminated. The impacts of the physical modification and chemical modification on the properties of CA were also reassessed.It could conclude that the chemical reaction with polymer could change the structure or properties of CA.The fouling resistance, thermoplastic, selective and reuse of the CA were improved greatly, while the physical modification could improve the porosity and thermal stability of CA membrane, and the membrane mechanical strength, metal ion exclusion rate and the water flux were improved. The applications of CA in seawater desalination, adsorption of toxic substances in flue gas, preparation of biomedical membrane, drug delivery, tissue repair and regeneration, biosensor, outdoor protection and air purification were also summarized, and the market prospect and development trend of CA were prospected.

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Study on Diels-Alder Reaction between β-Myrcene and Maleic Anhydride Catalyzed by SO 4 2-/TiO 2-ZrO 2 Solid Superacid
LUO Jin-yue;AN Xin-nan;LEI Fu-hou
   2007, 27 (6): 90-94.  
Abstract1870)      PDF(pc) (843KB)(1039)       Save
Diels-Alder reaction between β-myrcene and maleic anhydride catalyzed by SO 4 2-/TiO 2-ZrO 2 solid superacid was investigated. By using GC, GC-MS and IR, main product in this reaction is confirmed to be 4-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride. The result shows that this catalyst has high catalytic activity and good selectivity to the Diels-Alder reaction between β-myrcene and maleic anhydride. The effects of catalyst to its catalytic activity are investigated. The result also shows that the optimum conditions for the preparation of SO 4 2-/TiO 2-ZrO 2 catalysts are as follows: n(Ti): n(Zr) 1:1, calcination temperature at 450℃. Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for the Diels-Alder reaction are as follows: n( β-myrcene): n(maleic anhydride) 1:1,reaction time 4 h, reaction temperature 60℃, and the ratio of solid superacids to β-myrcene mass part 1%, the β-myrcene conversion is 96.5%, and the 4-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride selectivity is 94.0%, or yield is 90.7%. Furthermore, the effect of storage time of the catalysts on the reaction and the experiments on regeneration of catalysts are carried out.
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A Review of Deep Eutectic Solvents for Lignin Isolation
Lei ZHONG,Chao WANG,Gaojin LYU,Xingxiang JI,Guihua YANG,Jiachuan CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 12-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.002
Abstract1857)   HTML1193765908)    PDF(pc) (1494KB)(1449)       Save

Lignin is the most abundant renewable aromatic polymer in nature, which complex structure and compact connection with cellulose and hemicellulose through covalent bond and hydrogen bond make it difficult to be separated efficiently. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) is a novel kind of green ionic liquid, which has been successfully applied to lignin isolation due to its unique physical and chemical properties. The research progress of dissolution and extraction of lignin by deep eutectic solvents (DES) is reviewed in detail. From the point of view of the mechanism of dissolving lignin by DES, the effects of different factors(composition, proportion, pH value, functional groups of DES, water content of system, raw material, reaction time, temperature, catalyst, co-solvent, and so on) on lignin removal were emphatically expounded. Based on the research progress of DES in lignin extraction, the research progress and futuer application of lignin extraction were summarized and prospected.

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Review on Preparation Technology of Activated Carbon and Its Application
JIANG Jianchun, SUN Kang
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2017, 37 (1): 1-13.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.001
Abstract1833)      PDF(pc) (2184KB)(1598)       Save
The domestic and international research progress of activated carbon production and application status in recent twenty years were reviewed. The development of chemical activation and physical activation of activated carbon were summarized, and the latest breakthrough on the integrated production process of physical and chemical activation was introduced. The pollution-free, low consumption and pretreatment production technology of activated carbon industrial production and the regeneration production technology of adsorption-saturated activated carbon were briefly described. Meanwhile, the research progresses of its application on gas adsorption, liquid adsorption and catalyst carrier were discussed, too. The existing problems of production and application technology of activated carbon were put forward, the development of activated carbon industry outlet and solutions were clarified, and the future research directions of activated carbon were further pointed out.
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Preparation of High-efficient Tung Oil Drier and Its Drying Performance
Yun YU,Ningning YANG,Bin HUANG,Yan YANG,Youwei LIAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 101-107.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.014
Abstract1689)   HTML195)    PDF(pc) (1306KB)(580)       Save

The effects of four kinds of driers, namely rare earth isooctanoate(REI), cobalt isooctanoate(CI), high-efficient drier M2203 and CQ-150B alone or in combination on the drying performance of tung oil and polymerized tung oil were investigated. The experimental results showed that the viscosity of polymerized tung oil at 10℃ was 15 520 mPa·s and higher than that of tung oil(160 mPa·s). The drying time of polymerized tung oil at 20℃ was 72 h and shorter than that of tung oil(168 h). When 0.6% of REI was used together with 0.010% of CI, the surface drying time and hard drying time of raw tung oil were 2 and 2.5 h, respectively, the hardness grade was 4 H, and the adhesion grade was 1; the surface drying time and hard drying time of polymerized tung oil were 0.67 and 1 h, hardness grade was 5 H, adhesion was grade 1. Compared with the high-efficient drier M2203 and CQ-150B drier, the composite drier had light color and good compatibility with tung oil. FI-IR and TGA analysis showed that the tung oil paint film prepared by drying with compound drier had high cross-linking degree and good heat stability. So the compound drier was proved to be an excellent tung oil drier.

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Progress of Research on Preparation and Application of Nanocellulose Whiskers
LI Jin-ling;CHEN Guang-xiang;YE Dai-yong
   2010, 30 (2): 121-125.  
Abstract1669)      PDF(pc) (930KB)(3610)       Save
Advances of research on preparation, modification and application of nanocellulose whiskers(NCW) are reviewed. NCW are produced from natural cellulose by sulfuric-acid hydrolysis. Recent progress of research on hydrolysis process, preparation methods and conditions, characterization of properties of NCW, surface modification methods and the application of NCW in the fields of fine chemical and material science,etc. are mainly introduced.
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Chemical Composition of Leaf Essential Oil of Synsepalum dulcificum and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial and Antitumoral Activities in vitro
LU Sheng-lou LU Sheng-lou, LIU Hong, CHEN Guang-ying, HAN Chang-ri, ZANG Wen-xia
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2014, 34 (1): 121-127.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.021
Abstract1630)      PDF(pc) (939KB)(970)       Save
The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Synsepalum dulcificum leaf essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The in vitro antibacterial activity and antitumoral activity of this essential oil was characterized. Sixty-eight compositions were separated. Among them 44 components were identified and represented 92.14% of the total detected constituents. The major chemical compounds of leaf essential oil were spathulenol (24.194%), limonene (15.805%), diisooctyl phthalate (12.402%), dibutyl phthalate (10.326%), palmitic acid (4.865%) and linalool (2.139%). The result of the antimicrobial assay showed that the essential oil displayed varying degrees of antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with minimum inhibition concentration(MIC)values from 39.06 to 252.15 mg/L. In addition, the antitumoral activity using MTT assay of the leaf essential oil exhibited this oil was effective against human K562 cancer cell line in a dose dependent manner. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC 50) value was 13.5 mg/L.
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Optimization of Acid Hydrolysis Processing of Nanocellulose Crystal Using Response Surface Methodology
TANG Li-rong;OU Wen;LIN Wen-yi;CHEN Yan-dan;CHEN Xue-rong;HUANG Biao
   2011, 31 (6): 61-65.  
Abstract1623)      PDF(pc) (1278KB)(1081)       Save
Nanocellulose crystal was prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The effects of sulfuric acid mass fraction, temperature and time on the yield of nanocellulose crystal were optimized with response surface methodology. The mathematical model was established using the Design-Expert software. The effect of various factors and their interactions were analyzed as well. The results showed that quadratic model was the best model to describe the relationship between the yield of nanocellulose crystal and the factors. The determination coefficient and adjusted determination coefficient were 99.31 % and 98.43 %, respectively. The interactions between sulfuric acid concentration and temperature, sulfuric acid concentration and time, temperature and time were significant. When sulfuric acid concentration, temperature and time corresponded to 54 %, 52 ℃ and 125 min, the yield of nanocellulose crystal would reach 69.31 %. It is the highest value in this investigation.
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Synthesis of Cinnamaldehyde Catalyzed by Solid Superbase Na 2CO 3/ γ-Al 2O 3
CHEN Lu;WANG Yi-wang;LUO Jin-yue;
   2013, 33 (6): 91-94.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.06.017
Abstract1587)      PDF(pc) (1482KB)(924)       Save
Benzaldehyde is used as a raw material, to synthesize cinnamaldehyde from acetaldehyde in catalysis by aldol condensation reaction. The conditions of the catalytic reaction were discussed. The product was characterized by GC-MS,IR and 1H NMR. The results show that: When the catalyst is Na 2CO 3/ γ-Al 2O 3, the molar proportion of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde is 1.3:1, the reaction temperature is 30 ℃, reaction time is 1 h, the amount of catalyst is 1 g (according to 11.6 g 40% acetaldehyde), the yield of cinnamaldehyde reaches 40.9%.
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Process for Purification of Cinnamicaldehyde from Cinnamon Oil
ZHONG Chang-yong
   2009, 29 (6): 65-68.  
Abstract1568)      PDF(pc) (848KB)(938)       Save
A process for preparing cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon oil using vacuum distillation and molecular distillation was investigated. The optimum conditions of the process for obtaining high-purity and high-yield product were determined by analyzing the relative content of cinnamaldehyde with gas chromatography. The condition of vacuum distillation was as follows:pressure 1.333 kPa, temperature of total reflux 60-70℃, temperature of collecting the light component 60-100℃, temperature of collecting the middle component 90-115℃, temperature of collecting crude cinnamaldehyde 110-125℃, reflux ratio 2:1. Under these conditions, the purity and yield of the final product were 98.66% and 84.68%, respectively. The purity and yield reach 99.5% and 85.63% respectively after molecular distillation.
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PROSPECT ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY UTILIZATION
JIANG Jian-chun
   2002, 22 (2): 75-80.  
Abstract1560)      PDF(pc) (619KB)(5386)       Save
Biomass energy is an important part of renewable energy.High effective utilization and development of biomass energy has positive effects on solving energy and environment problems.Since 1970's,in countries worldwide,especially in advanced countries,extra attentions have been paid to conduct researches on the application technique of biomass energy and a lot of research progress have been achieved,some of which have been used in industrial scale.In this paper,the progress of research and development in domestic and abroad,concerning biomass solidification,liquefaction,gasification and direct combustion technique,are summarized.According to our country's situation,proposals on research and development prospect are put forward.
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A New Method for Preparation of Maleic Rosin Acid
LENG Fang;DUAN Wen-gui;XU Xue-tang;WEI Ting-ting;WANG Wei-kun;ZENG Yan-ping
   2011, 31 (5): 65-70.  
Abstract1557)      PDF(pc) (1185KB)(999)       Save
Maleic rosin acid was prepared using rosin and maleic anhydride as raw materials. Effects of different reaction conditions on the reaction were investigated by single factor experimentation, and the optimum conditions were found to be as follows: mole ratio of maleic anhydride to rosin 1.1∶1, reaction temperature 190 ℃, reaction time 4 h. The structure of maleopimaric acid anhydride was characterized by IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction. It was found that the configuration of maleopimaric acid anhydride was the classical type of diterpene compounds. The prepared maleic rosin was hydrolyzed and purified by potassium salt method to obtain maleic rosin acid with purity of 95.3% and yield of 81.5%. The structure of maleic rosin acid was verified by means of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS.
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Four Kinds of Pretreatment Methods for Lignocellulosics
MA Bin;CHU Qiu-lu;ZHU Jun-jun;OUYANG Jia;YU Shi-yuan;YONG Qiang
   2013, 33 (2): 25-30.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.02.004
Abstract1495)      PDF(pc) (858KB)(1181)       Save
Corn stalk was pretreated by four kinds of pretreatment methods, namely, dilute acid, dilute acid refining, neutral steam explosion and dilute acid steam explosion. The effects of pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and yield of fermentable su-gars were investigated. The components of pretreated corn stalk, sugars in pre-hydrolyzate, carbohydrate and lignin degradation products in pre-hydrolyate were also analyzed. After 100 g corn stalk was pretreated by dilute acid, dilute acid refining, neutral steam explosion and dilute acid steam explosion followed by washing, the cellulose content -dropped from 37.17g to 33.96, 33.54, 32.63 and 32.88 g, respectively; the xylan content declined from 22.84 g to 2.77, 2.47, 3.56 and 2.05 g respectively and lignin content reduced to 17.63, 17.42, 16.90 and 17.25 g from 18.76 g, respectively. When dilute acid steam explosion pretreated corn stalk was treated by 20 FPIU/g cellulose cellulase and 3 IU/g cellulose β-glucosidase for 48 h as the substrate concentration was 100g/L, the hydrolysis yield of cellulose was 75.91 % (based on corn stover). The yield of fermentable sugars was 44.93 % (based on corn stover) as the corn stover was pretreated by dilute acid steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis.
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