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Research Progress in the Modification of Bio-based Poly(Ethylene 2, 5-Furandicarboxylate)
Xiaoqing LIN, Shunhui TAO, Lei HU, Xiaojie ZHENG, Xiaodong ZHANG, Yao LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 125-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.017
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With the depletion of petroleum resources and the increasingly serious white pollution, the preparation of bio-based poly(ethylene 2, 5-furandicarboxylate)(PEF) from lignocellulosic resources has become one of the research hotspots in the fields of biorefinery and green chemical industry. Compared with petroleum-based plastics, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) and polycarbonate(PC), PEF not only has excellent thermal properties and mechanical strength, but also has more obvious advantages in gas barrier properties, which is considered as a perfect substitute for PET. However, PEF also has some drawbacks, including low elongation at break, dark color, difficult degradation and slow deep crystallization speed. Therefore, it is necessary to modify PEF before practical application. In this paper, the research progresses of PEF modification, including copolymerization, blending and other modification methods were reviewed. The effects of different diols or diacid modified monomers, catalyst types, reaction modes, additives on the properties of PEF were summarized, and the developing trend and application prospects of modified PEF were discussed.

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Preparation and Characterization of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Microspheres
Xiaolin HUANG, Jiaxin NI, Youqi HAN, Jiaheng LIU, Yuanyuan MIAO, Shiyan HAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 64-70.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.009
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Hollow mesoporous silica microspheres SiO2-1 and SiO2-2 were prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal synthesis using dichloride-N, N'-bis (3-hydrorosin loxy-2-hydroxypropyl) tetramethylenediamine (DHRT) as template agent and ethyl orthosilicate as silicon source.SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD and nitrogen adsorption-desorption were used to characterize SiO2-1 and SiO2-2.The results showed that silicon dioxide microspheres with amorphous structure were successfully prepared by both methods; the agglomeration phenomenon between silica particles gradually disappeared with the increase of the amount of template agent (0.1-1 g); SiO2-1 was mainly loose microsphere with patterns, and SiO2-2 was hollow microsphere with the wall thickness of 80-85 nm.The average particle size distributions of SiO2-1 and SiO2-2 prepared with different template dosages (0.3-1 g) were 0.22-0.33 μm and 0.34-0.41 μm, respectively.The morphology and particle size of SiO2-1-0.7 and SiO2-2-0.7 prepared by two methods exhibited good morphology and low particle size, with specific surface area of 561.52 and 463.41 m2/g, cumulative pore volume of 0.35 and 0.42 m3/g, and average pore size of 2.56 and 3.66 nm, respectively.Zeta potential analysis showed that the formation of SiO2 hollow mesoporous structure was mainly caused by the cooperative self-assembly process between the oligomer obtained by hydrolyzing polycondensation of ethyl orthosilicate and the template agent.

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Thermal Properties and Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Tannic Acid
Yuxin LU, Lingang LU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 83-89.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.011
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Tannic acid(TA) is a kind of multi hydroxyl aromatic biomass. The thermal properties of TA were analyzed by thermogravimetric experiment, the carbonization process of TA was observed by muffle furnace heating experiment, the apparent activation energy was observed by KAS and Ozawa method, and the most probable function was determined by Satava method. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that TA entered the state of rapid weight loss at about 182 ℃; when the temperature reached 800 ℃, the carbon residue of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 15.29%. In air atmosphere, the carbon residue was 1.97% due to the second rapid weight loss in the temperature range of 436-538 ℃. It was found in the macro carbonization experiment that TA would form an expanded carbon layer when heated. Among them, a hollow carbon layer appeared at 100-200 ℃, and a solid carbon layer was formed at 300-400 ℃, which had obvious expansion, integrity, compactness and good gloss. It had the potential to become a new carbon source in intumescent flame retardants. The results of thermal decomposition kinetics showed that the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 494 kJ/mol, lgA was 111.32, and the most probable mechanism function of rapid weight loss stage was G(α)=[-ln(1-α)]1/n, n=0.105 3, and its thermal decomposition mechanism belonged to random nucleation and subsequent nucleation growth reaction.

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Research Progress in Electrochemically Catalyzed Depolymerization of Lignin
Chunhui MA, Jifang ZHANG, Wei LI, Sha LUO, Shouxin LIU, Jian LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 110-122.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.015
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In this article, the research progress of electrochemical technology of lignin depolymerization recently, including micro electrochemical expression of lignin depolymerization, types of catalysts, electrode materials and electrode mechanism of electrochemical reactor and other strategies, were reviewed. The frontier research of lignin depolymerization by electrochemical technology combined with ionic liquid catalysis system, biological enzyme catalysis system and photocatalysis technology were analyzed. The influences of electrode material and current density on electrocatalytic efficiency were summarized, and the challenges as well as the opportunities of the application of electrochemical technology were presented.

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Research Progress in Preparation and Application of Lignin-based Porous Carbon Materials
Xinglong HOU, Wei XU, Junli LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 131-138.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.017
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Lignin is an amorphous, highly cross-linked polyphenol aromatic polymer with a wide range of sources and rich carbon content, and is suitable for the preparation of porous carbon materials. Using lignin to prepare porous carbon is an important way to solve the problem that lignin is difficult to be used efficiently. It can solve environmental pollution and realize resource utilization. This article mainly introduced the research status of the preparation of microporous activated carbon with lignin as carbon precursor by physical and chemical activation method and the preparation of mesoporous carbon materials by template method in recent years. The pore structure and morphology of porous carbon materials prepared by different methods were compared and analyzed, as well as their application progress in adsorption, catalysis and electrochemistry.

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Research Progress of Biomass-based Stimulus-responsive Hydrogels
Yupeng LIU, Peipei KUANG, Ying CHEN, Jifu WANG, Chunpeng WANG, Fuxiang CHU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 126-134.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.017
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Stimulus-responsive hydrogels, as a new class of functional polymer materials, can actively sense the difference of the external environment and reflect the change to the outside world by specific ways such as swelling or contraction, and show a great application potential in many fields of life and production. As a renewable natural resources, biomass has been widely applied in the preparation of stimulus-responsive hydrogels in recent years. Particularlly for rapid development of engineering technology and applications, including controllable/active polymerization and click chemistry, dynamic covalent bond, supramolecular self-assembly and super molecular aggregation state regulatory molecules, etc, is able to overcome the instrisic structure defects of biomass macromolecule to a certain extent, and fabricate the stimulus-responsive hydrogels containing unique molecular structure of biomass raw materials, which promoted the development of new green synthesis strategies, multi-functional technology, simple modular synthesis technology, modern biotechnology and other technologies. Based on the stimulus-responsive methods and types of stimulus-responsive hydrogels, this paper assembles six types of hydrogels, including temperature response, acid-base response, light response, electric response, magnetic response and multiple response and highlights the effect of the unique molecular structure of biomass raw materials on the performance of the stimulus-responsive hydrogels. Also, the applications of biomass-based hydrogels with different environmental responses in the fields of drug controlled release, biological tissue engineering, biosensors, adsorption materials, cell culture and antibacterial materials were summarized, and the future development direction of biomass-based hydrogels was prospected.

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Directional Decomposition of Bamboo Powder in Bio-based Polar Aprotic Solvent/Aqueous p-Toluenesulfonic Acid Coupling Systems
Xiaoyan YIN, Tingting CAI, Chao LIU, Jianchun JIANG, Kui WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.001
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The effects of pretreatment with γ-valerolactone/p-toluenesulfonic aci aqueous solution coupling systemGVL/TsOH aq) an Cyrene/p-toluenesulfonic aci aqueous solution coupling systemCyrene/TsOH aq) on the chemical composition an enzymatic hyrolysis of maso bamboo were stuie. The results showe that the hemicellulose separation rates (SH) an lignin separation rate (SL) in GVL/TsOH aq system with 75 g/L TsOH an the solvent volume ratio of 4:1 were 98.5% an 98.4%, respectively, after pretreatment at 130℃ for 60 min, an the cellulose retention rate (RC) was 91.5%. In contrast, the Cyrene/TsOH aq system with 30 g/L TsOH an the solvent volume ratio of 0.8:1 was pretreate maso bamboo at 120℃ for 60 min, the RC was 87.3%, while the SH an SL were 85.5% an 79.4%, respectively. Characterization results of soli samples after pretreatment showe that after pretreatment with GVL/TsOH aq, the ense structure of lignocellulose of the samples was effectively estroye, an most of the amorphous hemicellulose an lignin were separate, with a crystallinity of 68.27%. Besies, the structure was closer to microcrystalline cellulose, an more free hyroxyl groups were expose, which was conucive to the subsequent enzymatic hyrolysis an saccharification process. The enzymatic hyrolysis results emonstrate that the glucose yiel of the soli sample obtaine by GVL/TsOH aq pretreatment (773 mg/g) was significantly higher than that of the sample obtaine by Cyrene/TsOH aq (306 mg/g), which was 19.3 times of that of bamboo. The two solvent systems coul be effectively recycle, an the separation rate of lignin an the retention rate of cellulose in GVL/TsOH aq system coul reach 90.3% an 91.5% respectively, an 94.8% of solvent coul be recovere after three cycles.

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Preparation of Copper Loaded Activated Carbon and Its Adsorption Performance of Gaseous Benzene
Zhou XU, Wei LI, Shouxin LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.001
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The modified coconut shell activated carbons were prepared by loading CuCl2, carbonization and CO2 activation. The Cu-loaded activated carbons were labeled as AC3, AC4, AC5, and AC7 to represent the mass fractions of cupric salt solutions 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. The Cu-loaded activated carbons were characterized by means of N2 adsorption isotherm, SEM, XRD and XPS. Their dynamic adsorption-desorption performance was measured by the gravimetric method. After modification, the acidic oxygenated groups on the surface of activated carbon decreased. The results showed that cupric salt existed in two forms, i.e., CuO and Cu2O. It was found that the presence of Cu loading led to the decreasing of surface area and pore volume of modified sample, and the increasing of the surface area and proportion of micropore. AC5 showed the largest values of the surface area(733.20 m2/g) and proportion(72.99%) of micropore. Furthermore, AC5 had the optimal equilibrium adsorption capacity(356.40 mg/g) which increased by 33.38% compared to the raw sample, and the optimal equilibrium adsorption time(118.80 min) which increased by 33.38%. Moreover, the adsorption performance of AC5 was better than the activated carbons in the organic gas filter cartridge(3M-3301 CN and 3M-6001 CN). After five cycles of adsorbents regeneration test, 80% of adsorption capability was still able to be reserved. The Cu-loaded activated carbons improved the adsorption performance by transforming the style from physical adsorption to physical-chemical adsorption through complexation of π-bonds in benzene with hollow d-orbitals in Cu2+.

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Synthesis and Properties of a Rosin-based Anionic Surfactant
Shujing PANG, Hao CHEN, Binglei SONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 51-56.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.007
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Using dehydroabietic acid (DA) and 6-aminocaproic acid as the raw materials, a rosin-based amino acid surfactant (R-6) was synthesized via reactions of chlorination, amidation and saponification reactions.The 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals of dehydroabietic acid were analyzed by using 2D NMR techniques, and the structure of the final product was also confirmed by 1H NMR and FT-IR.The solubility, surface tension and foam properties of R-6 were investigated.The results showed that at room temperature, R-6 showed excellent solubility of above 800 mmol/L in water.The critical micelle concentration (Ccmc) of the surfactant was 5.89 mmol/L, and the surface tension (γcmc) corresponding to Ccmc was 40.46 mN/m.With the increase of surfactant concentration, R-6 exhibited strong ability in stabilizing foams.When the concentration of R-6solution was 10 mmol/L, the foam half-life was as high as 1 966 min.

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Preparation of Biomass-derived Fe-N-C Porous Carbon Material and Its Catalytic Reduction of Nitrobenzene
Xing LIU, Zhu YIN, Beili LU, Fengzhen WU, Biao HUANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 63-70.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.009
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Fir sawdust, urea and FeCl3·6H2O were mixed thoroughly at a mass ratio of 1∶[KG-*9]1∶[KG-*9]2 to generate the nitrogen doped porous carbon materials loaded with iron(Fe-N-C) after annealing the mixtures at the temperature of 700-1 000 ℃. The elemental composition, structure and surface properties of the obtained carbon materials at different temperatures were analyzed. Following that, the catalytic performance of the reduction of nitrobenzene were investigated. The results showed that the carbonization temperature had a significant effect on the iron and doped nitrogen species. At 700 ℃, the iron species in Fe-N-C-700 were mainly Fe3O4, whereas the nitrogen species were mainly pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N. As the temperature rose, the iron species became mostly metallic iron, and a portion of the pyridinic-N was changed to graphitic-N. When the temperature was 900 ℃, the manufactured porous carbon material(Fe-N-C-900) had a Fe content of 43.42% and a N content of 2.19%, of which the graphitic-N was 37.7%, pyridinic-N was 23.8%, pyrrolic-N was 22.9% and oxidized-N was 15.6%. When the reaction duration was 2.5 h at 55 ℃. The conversion and selectivity of catalytic reduction of nitrobenzene were close to 100%.The high catalytic performance of Fe-N-C-900 might be due to the synergistic effect between the high content of iron species and graphite nitrogen formed during the calcination process. When Fe-N-C-900 was used for catalytic reduction of nitroarenes with electron-donating substituents such as methyl, amino or hydroxyl group, the corresponding products might be produced with high conversion and selectivity. In additon, when the nitroarenes contained electron-withdrawing substituents such as chlorine or iodine group, the reaction time must be extended to 4 h, and the conversion rate could reach up to 97.3% with the product selectivity above 99%. It indicated that Fe-C-N-900 had good universality for various substrates. And the catalyst had good stability and magnetic recyclability. After 5 times of recycling, the catalytic performance did not decrease obviously, the nitrobenzene conversion remained at 98.3% with the selectivity of 96.5%.

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Research Progress on Application of Rosin and Its Derivatives in Inorganic Functional Materials
Tong LIU, Yuxuan DONG, Wanting GU, Bing HAN, Chunrui HAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 123-130.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.016
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Rosin is an important biomass resource in China, and its main component resin acid contains tricyclophenylene skeleton strong hydrophobic rigid group and carboxyl weak hydrophilic group. Rosin can be used to disperse inorganic nano materials and reduce the aggregation of inorganic nano materials. The surfactant with excellent hydrophilic and lipophilic properties can be obtained by chemical modification of acid double bond and carboxyl group of rosin resin, which has better "fusion" with inorganic materials. Rosin based surfactant can be used as template and dispersing agent to prepare a variety of inorganic functional materials. The rosin based small molecule/inorganic hybrid materials and rosin modified polymer/inorganic hybrid materials can be obtained by designing functional rosin derivatives to bond with inorganic materials. Based on the structural characteristics and chemical properties of rosin and its derivatives, the application of rosin and its derivatives in inorganic functional materials was reviewed, and the application prospect of rosin derivatives in the development of inorganic functional materials was prospected.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Waterborne UV Curable Resin fromEpoxy Itaconate Modified by Isocyanate
Junna BIAN, Jian CHEN, Zhaozhe YANG, Guomin WU, Zhenwu KONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 101-109.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.014
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Epoxy itaconate resin(IE) was synthesized by esterification of itaconic acid(IA) with epoxy resin E51. The IE was then reacted with different half-terminated isocyanates to prepare epoxy itaconate resin modified with isocyanate(DIHIE) in order to improve the UV curing activity. In next, the chemical structure and particle size distribution of IE and DIHIE were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and laser particle sizer. The results showed when the molar ratio of carboxyl group to epoxy group was 2∶[KG-*9]1, the reaction temperature and time was 90 ℃ for 4 h, and the amount of catalyst N, N-dimethylbenzylamine was 3% of the total amount of reactants, while the conversion rate of the IA was about 95%. The half-terminated isocyanate intermediate was synthesized from isophorone diisocyanate(IPDI) and hydroxyethyl methacrylate(HEMA), and then it reacted with IE to obtain IPDIHIE. IPDIHIE was synthesized with acetone as solvent, which was carried out at acetone reflux temperature(56 ℃) for 8 h. The storage stability of the DIHIE dispersion was better when triethanolamine(TEOA) was used as neutralizing agent. The UV curing activity of the resins were improved obviously after being modified by half-terminated isocyanate. The curing time was shortened from 100 s to less than 60 s after modification. The pencil hardness of paint film could reach 4H and the adhesion performance was excellent. Moreover, all of them were about 1 grade.

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Synthesis of Allyl Modified Lacquer and Its Characteristics of UV/Oxygen Curing
Jian CHEN, Guomin WU, Shuping HUO, Zhenwu KONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.001
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The allyl ether modified lacquer(AGE-L) was successfully prepared by the reaction of lacquer with allyl glycidyl ether(AGE), and subsequently reacted with methacrylic anhydride(MAA) to form a novel lacquer-based monomer with ether bond and ester bond(MAA-AGE-L). Their structures were then characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, and their physical and chemical properties were tested. Additionally, the UV and oxygen(air) curing processes of raw lacquer, AGE-L and MAA-AGE-L were investigated, and the mechanical properties as well as the resistances to chemical media of the cured films were also studied. The results confirmed the successful synthesis of AGE-L and MAA-AGE-L, which were all brownish red liquids. The hydroxyl value of AGE-L was 193 mg/g, the iodine value was 1.89 g/g and the viscosity was 400 mPa·s. The hydroxyl value of MAA-AGE-L was 20 mg/g, the iodine value was 1.39 g/g and the viscosity was 2 000 mPa·s. Compared with lacquer, the surface drying time of MAA-AGE-L was shortened from 2 h to 50 min in presence of the oxygen(air) environment at 30 ℃ with the relative humidity of 80%, and the UV curing surface drying time was shortened from 50 s to 10 s. The pencil hardness of the cured film was H when AGE-L was irradiated by ultraviolet light for 120 s, whereas the pencil hardness of the paint film cured under oxygen(air) for one week was 2H. Moreover, they exhibited good adhesion, flexibility and impact strength. Allyl-modified lacquer films obtained by two curing methods had good water resistance, ethanol resistance, salt water resistance and acid resistance.

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Preparation and Performance of Bio-based Intrinsic Flame-retarding Epoxy Resin
Zheng PAN, Zhuo LI, Caiying BO, Guodong FENG, Xiaohui YANG, Lihong HU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 71-78.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.010
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The epoxy monomer 1, 3, 3'-tri-oxirane-2'-methoxy-benzophenone(DEBP) was synthesized with vanillic acid, m-diphenol, epichlorohydrin and so on as raw materials by simple two-step method. And DEBP was structurally characterized and determined via FT-IR, and was then mixed with 4, 4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone(DDS), followed by heating and curing to obtain DEBP/DDS epoxy resin. For comparative purpose, commercially used diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A(DGEBA) was cured with the identical curing agent was used as a control. The results showed that DEBP monomer had higher curing activity than that of DGEBA monomer. The glass transition temperature of DEBP/DDS epoxy resin was 183℃, which was higher than that of DGEBA/DDS. The DEBP/DDS epoxy resin outperformed DGEBA/DDS epoxy resin in terms of flexural and tensile properties. The flexural modulus and strength of DEBP/DDS epoxy resin were measured as 2 437.8 and 98.6 MPa and the tensile modulus and strength of DEBP/DDS were 2 523.4 and 71.1 MPa. The cured DEBP/DDS also demonstrated excellent flame retardant property. The char residue at 800℃ reached 35%, the limiting oxygen index(LOI) was 34%, the UL 94 level was V-0 and the total heat release was measured as 17.8 kJ/g. This research suggested that without indroducing any flame retardant element, an intrinsic flame-retarding epoxy resin was synthesized with bio materials.

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Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Bamboo Based Ultra-thick Carbonaceous Electrode Materials
Tingting YU, Zongze LYU, Xiang LI, Jindong HU, Peiyan LI, Zhiguo LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 10-18.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.002
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The 2.5 mm bamboo charcoal ultra-thick electrode material was prepared by direct carbonization of bamboo which preserved its straight pore structure. The bamboo charcoal materials Z-700, Z-800, and Z-900 were prepared at 700, 800 and 900 ℃, which were characterized by SEM, XPS, Raman spectra analysis. The results showed that the original bamboo structure was maintained after carbonization. Among them, the carbonized sample Z-900 owned a higher BET specific surface area(SBET) of 483 m2/g, total pore volume(Vtotal) of 0.23 cm3/g, mesoporous pore volume(Vmes) of 0.05 cm3/g, and micropore volume(Vmic) of 0.18 cm3/g. Electrochemical performance tests showed that the specific capacitance of the prepared ultra-thick bamboo charcoal electrode Z-900 was as high as 22.0 F/cm2 in the 6 mol/L KOH electrolyte with the current density of 10 A/m2. When the current density was 200 A/m2, the specific capacitance still reached 14.5 F/cm2 and the capacitance retention rate was 65.9%. The symmetric supercapacitor Z-900//Z-900 assembled with ultra-thick bamboo charcoal electrode Z-900 owned a specific capacitance of 14 F/cm2 at the current density of 10 A/m2, which had a discharge time of 3 500 s, an energy density of 4.9 W·h/m2, and a power density of 5 W/m2. At the current density of 100 A/m2, the coulomb efficiency could reach 99.8% after 10 000 cycles, and the capacitance retention was 88%, which demonstrated that Z-900 had an excellent electrochemical stability.

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Study on Polyphenols in Lacquer Tree by Matrix Solid-phase Dispersion and HPLC-IT-TOF/MS
Hongxia CHEN, Hao ZHOU, Ran TAO, Zhiwen QI, Wenjun LI, Chengzhang WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 10-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.002
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Matrix solid-phase dispersion was proposed to extract polyphenols in Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F. A. Barkl. (Shaanxi lacquer tree). The MSPD conditions to extract polyphenols established by the single factor test were ZSM-22 as the adsorbent, adsorbent/sample ratio of 2:1 (g: g), grinding for 2 min, and use of 8 mL of 70% methanol as the elution solvent. Under these conditions, the polyphenols content of MSPD extraction was (466 ±2. 05)mg/g(calculated by gallic acid). An efficient and accurate method for identification of polyphenols in Shaanxi lacquer tree was established by HPLC-IT-TOF/MS. According to mass spectrometry, fragmentation pathway combined with published reports, total of 10 components were identified, including 3 gallic acid derivatives and 7 flavonoids as follows: gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, fustin, taxifolin, garbanzol, isorhamnetin, quercitrin, fisetin, sulfuretin. It was beneficial to the discovery and identification of compounds in Shaanxi lacquer tree by matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with HPLC-IT-TOF/MS, and it could be significance for the analysis and quantification of extracts from Shaanxi lacquer tree samples.

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Extraction of Chlorogenic Acid From Eucommia ulmoides Leaves by Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent and Its Antioxidant Activity
Feng YU, Zhihong WANG, Guangyao ZHANG, Zhiyun DU, Mijun PENG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 101-109.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.014
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Chlorogenic acid was extracted from Eucommia ulmoides leaves by natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) with ultrasonic assistance.Its antioxidant activity was investigated.Firstly, the better natural deep eutectic solvent system was screened, and then based on the single factor test, the extraction process was optimized through the response surface and the antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid from E.ulmoides leaves was investigated.The results showed that the better solvent system was composed of betaine, L-lactic acid and water, and the ratio of each component was 1:1:4, and water consumption in eutectic solvent was 5 mol.The optimum conditions for E.ulmoides chlorogenic acid extract were liquid-to-material ratio of 30:1(mL: g), extraction temperature 40℃, extraction time 42 min, ultrasonic power 340 W.Under these conditions, the yield of chlorogenic acid was 31.46 mg/g, which increased by 18.23% and 14.82% respectively compared with the extraction solvent of water (26.61 mg/g) or 60% ethanol (27.40 mg/g).The antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid extract from E.ulmoides leaves was studied in vitro.The results showed that the NADES extract had strong scavenging ability to DPPH·, ABTS·, and·OH, with IC50 of 75.16, 19.98 and 314.20 mg/L, respectively.Its antioxidant capacity was stronger than those of water extract and alcohol extract, but slightly lower than that of Vc.

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Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of Lignin-based Activated Carbon by Phosphoric Acid Activation
Qi GUO, Wei XU, Junli LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 31-38.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.005
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Mesoporous activated carbon was prepared from poplar lignin by phosphoric acid activation. The effects of activation temperature(400-900 ℃) and mass ratio of phosphoric acid and lignin(impregnation ratio, 1∶1-4∶1) on the structure of activated carbon LAC-x-y(x represented the impregnation ratio, y represented the activation temperature) were investigated by pore structure, XRD and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The relationship between the electrochemical performance of activated carbon and its structure was investigated by means of electrochemical characterization. Pore structure analysis results showed that increasing the temperature and impregnation ratio was beneficial to the formation of mesopore, but too high temperature would lead to the collapse of pore structure, and too high impregnation ratio would lead to the increase of ash content, which would lead to the degradation of the performance of activated carbon. XRD and Raman spectroscopy results showed that increasing the temperature could improve the degree of graphitization of activated carbon, while increasing the impregnation ratio could decrease the degree of graphitization. Under the activation temperature of 800 ℃ and impregnation ratio of 2∶1, the activated carbon LAC-2-800 had the best performance, with specific surface area of 1 031 m2/g, mesopore ratio of 61% and average pore size of 3.31 nm. As the electrode material of supercapacitor, the specific capacitance reached 165 F/g at 1 A/g current density, and 136 F/g at 10 A/g current density. After 5 000 cycles at 1 A/g current density, the specific capacitance value could keep at 78.1% of the initial value.

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Preparation and Antioxidant Effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Leaves and Potentilla fruticosa Leaves Extracts Compound Beverage
Ruofei ZHENG, Zijia LIU, Nuernisa KASIMU, Dongmei WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 115-124.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.016
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The Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves extracts(ZBE) and Potentilla fruticosa leaves extracts(PFE) were prepared by ultrasonic assisted extraction and macroporous adsorptive resins, and the optimal mixing ratio was determined by isoradiation analysis. The results showed that the mixture of ZBE and PFE(mass ratio 3:1) exhibited the strongest synergistic antioxidant interaction. The formulation of ZBE and PFE compound beverage was as follows: the mixture of ZBE and PFE(3:1) 0.10%, xylitol 0.015%, aspartame 8.00%, citric acid 0.10%, CMC-Na 0.30%, xanthan gum 0.02%, and β-cyclodextrin 0.40%, 0.05% potassium sorbate. After boiling sterilization for 30 min, the total colonies numbers, mold and yeast numbers, coliform numbers, and foodborne pathogenic numbers of beverage were all meet the national standards, the total phenol content(TPC) was 0.014 1 μmol/g, the total flavonoid content(TFC) was 0.019 8 μmol/g, the content of the six main components catechin, ferulic acid, hypericin, rutin, quercitrin and afzelin were(28.76±0.20), (13.72±0.16), (65.32±0.55), (19.85±0.27), (62.76±0.36), (16.78±0.22) mg/g, the ABTS+· free radical scavenging capability was (2.09±0.011) μmol/g, the FRAP trivalent iron reduction capacity was (1.21±0.003) μmol/g, the mass concentration of the samples required to removing 50% DPPH·(IC50) was (436.48±3.16) mg/L, it exhibited strong antioxidant effects. Furthermore, after chemical stability test and the prediction and verification tests of shelf life, the shelf life at (25±2) ℃ was 6 months.

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Composition Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Cinnamon Polysaccharide
Shengnan LI, Xian CHENG, Liangwu BI, Weixing ZENG, Yuxiang CHEN, Zhendong ZHAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 34-40.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.005
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In order to explore the antioxidant activity of cinnamon polysaccharides, the protein was removed from the water extract of cinnamon(CE)to obtain crude polysaccharides. By using cellulose ion column DE-52 and propylene dextran gel S-300, the cinnamon neutral polysaccharides(CNP) was obtained. The relative molecular mass(Mr) of CNP was determined by gel permeation chromatography(GPC), and the monosaccharide component of CNP were determined by pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography. The connection modes of its monosaccharides were determined by methylation method and nuclear magnetic resonance method. The in vitro chemical model was used to study the scavenging effects of CNP on DPPH· and ABTS+·. The results indicated that the weight average relative molecular mass(Mw) of CNP was 3 630 and the main monosaccharide was glucose. Three kinds of connection modes of monosaccharides were 1, 4, 5-Ac3-2, 3, 6-Me3-Glu, 1, 5-Ac2-2, 3, 4, 6-Me4-Glu, and 1, 5, 6-Ac3-2, 3, 4-Me3-Glu. The determination results of free radicals scavenging by CNP showed that when the mass concentration of CNP was 2 g/L, the DPPH· scavenging rate reached the maximum of 84%, the ABTS+· scavenging rate reached 60%. Although the free radical scavenging rate of CNP was lower than that of Vc, the DPPH· scavenging effect was comparable to that of Vc when the concentration of CNP reached 0.5 g/L. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of cinnamon neutral polysaccharide was good and had good development value.

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