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Research Progress on Nanocellulose and Its Use in Lithium Batteries
Ying WANG, Chunhui MA, Jin ZHOU, Mengyang LI, Jinquan YUE
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (6): 105-116.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.014
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As a natural material with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, nano-cellulose has unique structure and excellent mechanical properties. It has been widely used in the construction of electrochemical energy storage system of lithium-ion batteries(LIBs), and has made significant progress. This thesis provided an overview of the preparation and modification methods of cellulose nanofibrils(CNF), cellulose nanocrystals(CNC) and bacterial cellulose(BC) in the context of the application of advanced energy storage devices LIBs and green materials nanocellulose, and reviewed the research progress on the application of nanocellulose in the field of LIBs. It was mainly divided into three aspects: first, nanocellulose-based flexible LIBs electrodes; second, carbon materials derived from nano cellulose as electrodes; third, nano cellulose derived battery separator. Finally, some problems in this field were analyzed, summarized and prospected.

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Research Progress in the Modification of Bio-based Poly(Ethylene 2, 5-Furandicarboxylate)
Xiaoqing LIN, Shunhui TAO, Lei HU, Xiaojie ZHENG, Xiaodong ZHANG, Yao LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (2): 125-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.02.017
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With the depletion of petroleum resources and the increasingly serious white pollution, the preparation of bio-based poly(ethylene 2, 5-furandicarboxylate)(PEF) from lignocellulosic resources has become one of the research hotspots in the fields of biorefinery and green chemical industry. Compared with petroleum-based plastics, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET) and polycarbonate(PC), PEF not only has excellent thermal properties and mechanical strength, but also has more obvious advantages in gas barrier properties, which is considered as a perfect substitute for PET. However, PEF also has some drawbacks, including low elongation at break, dark color, difficult degradation and slow deep crystallization speed. Therefore, it is necessary to modify PEF before practical application. In this paper, the research progresses of PEF modification, including copolymerization, blending and other modification methods were reviewed. The effects of different diols or diacid modified monomers, catalyst types, reaction modes, additives on the properties of PEF were summarized, and the developing trend and application prospects of modified PEF were discussed.

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Demand Analysis of Individuation Pine Resources for Fine Chemical Utilization of Pine Oleoresin
Zhendong ZHAO, Jing WANG, Yanju LU, Yuxiang CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 1-10.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.001
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Desirable pine resources are the basis for the sustainable, high value-added and fine chemical utilization of pine oleoresin. According to the chemical composition and structural characteristics of pine oleoresin, combined with the analysis of the current situation of pine oleoresin resources as well as their deep processing and utilization industries, the demand for individuation pine resources is discussed from the perspective of fine utilization. By the perspectives of production, processing, utilization and benefits, intensive high-quality pine oleoresin resources are needed, which have strong oleoresin exudation, long-lasting resinosis, good quality, and easy processability. And by the perspective of deep processing and utilization, individuation oleoresin resources are needed further, which have higher quality, more useful, more balanced or more outstanding specific components. To research and breed individuation pine resources such as pimaric-type rosin, isopimaric-type rosin, mercusic-type rosin, α-pinene-type turpentine, β-pinene-type turpentine, 3-carene-type turpentine, β-phellandrene-type turpentine and longifolene-type heavy turpentine, are scientifically important and applicably valuable for the fine chemical utilization, high value-added deep processing of rosin and turpentine. It is recommended to focus on the main oleoresin-tapping pine species such as P. massoniana, P. kesiya var. langbianensis, P. elliottii, P. elliottii×P. caribaea, P. latteri Mason, etc., and carry out more integrative and interdisciplinary researches on oleoresin chemistry, fine chemicals, genomics, metabolomics, genetic breeding, resource cultivation, and chemical engineering of forest products.

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Preparation and Characterization of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Microspheres
Xiaolin HUANG, Jiaxin NI, Youqi HAN, Jiaheng LIU, Yuanyuan MIAO, Shiyan HAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 64-70.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.009
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Hollow mesoporous silica microspheres SiO2-1 and SiO2-2 were prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal synthesis using dichloride-N, N'-bis (3-hydrorosin loxy-2-hydroxypropyl) tetramethylenediamine (DHRT) as template agent and ethyl orthosilicate as silicon source.SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD and nitrogen adsorption-desorption were used to characterize SiO2-1 and SiO2-2.The results showed that silicon dioxide microspheres with amorphous structure were successfully prepared by both methods; the agglomeration phenomenon between silica particles gradually disappeared with the increase of the amount of template agent (0.1-1 g); SiO2-1 was mainly loose microsphere with patterns, and SiO2-2 was hollow microsphere with the wall thickness of 80-85 nm.The average particle size distributions of SiO2-1 and SiO2-2 prepared with different template dosages (0.3-1 g) were 0.22-0.33 μm and 0.34-0.41 μm, respectively.The morphology and particle size of SiO2-1-0.7 and SiO2-2-0.7 prepared by two methods exhibited good morphology and low particle size, with specific surface area of 561.52 and 463.41 m2/g, cumulative pore volume of 0.35 and 0.42 m3/g, and average pore size of 2.56 and 3.66 nm, respectively.Zeta potential analysis showed that the formation of SiO2 hollow mesoporous structure was mainly caused by the cooperative self-assembly process between the oligomer obtained by hydrolyzing polycondensation of ethyl orthosilicate and the template agent.

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Research Progress of Hydrophobic Modification of Nanocellulose
Lingyuan WANG, Lanfeng HUI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 125-133.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.016
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Nanocellulose is a kind of nano-sized cellulose extracted from natural cellulose. It not only has the basic characteristics of cellulose, but also has large specific surface area, unique strength and optical properties originated from nano-size. However, the presence of free hydroxyl groups in cellulose is hydrophilic, which reduces the stiffness of nanocellulose materials in humid environments and limits its application fields. Therefore, hydrophobic modification of nanocellulose can expand its scope of application. This article reviewed the methods of hydrophobic modification of nanocellulose in recent years, including physical adsorption modification, esterification/acetylation modification, graft copolymerization, silane coupling agent modification, etc., and summarized the research results of the above methods, as well as the advantages and disadvantages. And the future development direction was prospected in order to provide reference for hydrophobic modification research.

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Progress of Research on CO 2 Adsorption by Porous Carbon Materials
Yuhang ZHANG, Wei LI, Chunhui MA, Sha LUO, Shouxin LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 107-122.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.015
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Global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions is a pressing environmental problem. Given that CO2 is the most significant greenhouse gas, research into materials that can efficiently adsorb CO2 has attracted considerable attention. Compared with other adsorption materials, porous materials offer a large specific surface area with high chemical and thermal stabilities and also feature good adsorption capacity, selectivity, cyclicity, and fast adsorption kinetics; therefore, they are widely used as solid adsorbents for CO2 capture. This review systematically introduces five types of porous carbon materials coal/petroleum-coke-activated carbons, biomass porous carbons, carbon aerogels, metal-organic-framework-derived carbons, and carbon nanomaterials that have been developed in recent years. Furthermore, the four primary methods used to prepare these materials for CO2 adsorption (i.e., high temperature carbonization and activation, hydrothermal carbonization, sol-gel processing and the template method) are presented. Emphasis is placed on their structure-performance relationship with CO2 adsorption. Simultaneously, the mechanism whereby CO2 is adsorbed by porous carbons with a pore texture is reviewed, in addition to the surface chemistry. Lastly, current challenges pertaining to CO2 adsorption are summarized, and future development trends are also prospected.

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Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Two Citrus Essential Oils and Their Main Components
Huazheng CHEN, Kai ZHU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (4): 17-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.04.003
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Orange oil, tangerine oil and limonene were used as target samples to study their scavenging capacities on ABTS+·, DPPH· and O2-· and total antioxidant capacity(FRAP value), as well as their antioxidant abilities in vivo and inhibitory abilities to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that tangerine oil had the best scavenging capacity on ABTS+· and DPPH·, their IC25 values were 1.481 and 24.824 g/L, respectively; limonene had the best scavenging effect on O2-·, and the scavenging rate was 32.86% at 0.8 g/L. The ferric ion reducing antioxidant power(FRAP) values of limonene, orange oil and tangerine oil were close to each other and weaker than those of BHA. At the mass concentration of 100 mg/L, the catalase(CAT) activities in Caenorhabditis elegans treated with tangerine oil and limonene were about 46 U/mg, which was 1.63 times of that in the untreated control group. Orange oil, tangerine oil and limonene had a relatively good inhibitory effect on S. aureus and E. coli. The inhibitory effect of tangerine oil on S. aureus was close to limonene, and the diameter of inhibition zone was about 11 mm. Orange oil, tangerine oil and limonene had an excellent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, and they were moderately sensitive to S. aureus.

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Determination of Deprotonation Characteristics of Tannic Acid by Potential Titration Method
Liangliang ZHANG, He ZHANG, Man XU, Xinyu HU, Yiwen LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.001
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The deprotonation process of a typical tannic acid, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose(PGG), and its parent compound methyl gallate(MeG) was studied by pH potentiometric titration and spectrophotography. The dissociation constants of PGG and MeG were calculated by chemometric methods using the Reactlab Equilibrium software. Concentration profiles of the fully protonated PGG and its two deprotonated forms at different pH values were also predicted by the chemometric method. The results showed that the deprotonation of phenolic hydroxyl of PGG was found with the increasing of pH value, and fully deprotonated forms of PGG existed at pH>11. These formed negative ions of oxygen can further coordinate with metal ions. Spectroscopic studies showed that there were two deprotonated forms of PGG, and the corresponding pKa values were 10.84±0.03 and 10.62±0.02. There was only one deprotonated form of MeG during titration, and the corresponding pKa value was 9.68±0.02.

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Production of Xylooligosaccharides and Monosaccharides from Poplar by Two-step Sodium Chlorite and Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatment
Xin FANG, Peiyao WEN, Yong XU, Junhua ZHANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (5): 23-30.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.05.004
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In this work, the effects of sodium chlorite(SC) and sodium hydroxide(SH) pretreatments on the chemical composition of poplar were investigated. The preparation of xylooligosaccharides(XOS) and monosaccharides by enzymatic hydrolysis was discussed. The results showed that poplar lignin could be selectively removed by SC pretreatment. After 6% SC pretreatment at 70℃ for 3 h, the removal of lignin reached 65.8%, whereas 90.7% glucan and 92.4% xylan were retained. The data of X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that SC pretreatment removed the total lignin in poplar and the surface lignin on poplar, and increased the crystallinity and accessibility of the substrate. After the pretreatment with 6% SC at 70℃ and 1% SH at 50℃, the contents of glucan, xylan, and lignin in the pretreated poplar were 67.8%, 21.5%, and 2.9%, respectively. The highest XOS yield of 47.2% from the SC-SH-pretreated poplar by xylanase hydrolysis was obtained, and the XOS preparation was composed of 98% xylobiose. Compared with the poplar treated by 6% SC at 70℃ for 3 h, SH pretreatment increased the yield of XOS by 7.1 times. After the hydrolysis by xylanase, the glucose yield of two-step pretreated poplar residue was 90.2% with a cellulase lading of 30 mg/g dry matter. Finally, 52.5 g XOS, 317.6 g glucose and 49.9 g xylose were obtained from 1 kg raw poplar. The results of this work provided a theoretical guidance for the preparation of XOS and monosaccharides from poplar under mild conditions.

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Research Progress on Electrode Materials from Activated Carbon-based Supercapacitors
Haonan CHEN, Ting YU, Yali ZHOU, Xiping LEI, Xiaolin GUAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (5): 113-125.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.05.016
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Supercapacitors are a new type of green energy storage device with the advantages of fast charging and discharging and long service life. The electrode material is the core component of supercapacitors. The carbon from biomass is considered as a good choice for the preparation of activated carbon because of its wide variety, low price, environmental friendly, porous structure and rich in hetero-atoms, and it is the most popular electrode material for commercial applications. This paper reviewd the effects of pore structure and specific surface area on the performance of electrochemical energy storage of activated carbon, summarized the common pore structures of biomass activated carbon such as tubular, lamellar, honeycomb and network and their electrochemical properties, and analyzed the effects of different biomass components on the performance of activated carbon from three categories: plant-based, animal-based and microbial-based. Finally, the traditional methods of preparing activated carbon and the new preparation methods in recent years were briefly introduced. The problems and challenges of biomass activated carbon were pointed out. Some suggestions were provided to guide the selection of precursors for biomass activated carbon.

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Research Progress on Chemical Constituents and Activities of Genus Usnea Lichens
Ziying YANG, Jing LI, Jie SU, Huiling LI, Zhang ZHANG, Feng PENG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 112-124.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.015
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As a medical plant with a long history, the Usnea species of lichen are widely distributed in China. However, the research about its chemical composition and activity is rare, delayed, and the basic data accumulation is weak, which restricts its further development and utilization.The primary metabolites polysaccharide(lichenan, isolichenan, galactomannan, and heteropo-lysaccharide) and fatty acids, and secondary metabolites(single benzene ring derivatives, depsides, depsidones, and benzofuran) of the Usnea species of lichen are reviewed in this article.The research progress of the bioactivity of lichen polysaccharide and lichen acid are introduced. Lichen polysaccharides have functions of antioxidation and antitumor; and lichen acids have functions of insecticidal, antibacterial, anticancer, antitumor, antioxidation, antivirus, antiinflammatory, liver-protecting, detoxication, and enzyme inhibition.

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Preparation of Cellulose Nanofibril by the Pretreatment with Deep Eutectic Solvent System
Guangrui MA, Ming HE, Guihua YANG, Weidong LI, Xingxiang JI, Jiachuan CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (4): 69-76.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.04.010
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A choline chloride-urea(molar ratio of 1:2) based deep eutectic solvent(DES) system was used as a non-hydrolytic pretreatment media to prepare the cellulose nanofibrils(CNF) from bleached kraft poplar pulp by using microfluidizer. The properties of CNF were characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscope(SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the polymerization degree(DP) of CNF and the energy consumption were calculated. The results showed that DES pretreatment could promote the swelling of pulp fibers, which was beneficial to fibrillation during the microfluidization process. The microfluidization treatment, was performed 15 times. It was found that compared with the energy consumption(4.35×107 kW·h/t) of raw materials without DES pretreatment, the energy consumption(2.44×107 kW·h/t) of raw materials with DES pretreatment decreased by 43.91%. whereas the crystallinity indexes(ICr) of CNF prepared before and after pretreatment were 54% and 44%, respectively. However, DES pretreatment had no obvious effect on the polymerization degree of fiber raw materials. DES pretreatment also reduced the thermal stability of CNF. The increase of homogenization times could promote the fibrillation of fibers, and reduce the crystallinity and polymerization degree of cellulose at the same time. FT-IR analysis showed that choline cations interacted with anionic groups of cellulose fibers through static electricity during DES pretreatment. Elemental analysis showed that nitrogen-containing residues remained in CNFs.

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Preparation and Properties of Cellulose/PVA Composite Aerogels
Meng WANG, Li TANG, Li GAO, Rongfen QU, Tougen LIAO, He LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 95-102.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.013
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Based on the freeze-drying process and chemical vapor deposition technology, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) was compounded with cellulose to enhance the mechanical compressibility and dimensional stability of cellulose(CE) aerogels, followed by the fabrication of highly elastic, hydrophobic, and porous CE/PVA composite aerogels. The effects of PVA content on the mechanical properties of CE/PVA composite aerogels were studied. As the mass fraction of PVA increased, the compressive strength of cellulose aerogels increased. When the amount of PVA was 15% of the mass of cellulose, the compressive strain increased to 66 kPa, which was increased by 6.5 times. Simultaneously, the influences of silane modification on the microstructure, thermal stability, hydrophobicity, specific surface area and physical properties of composite aerogels were explored, and the results showed that S-CE/PVA composite aerogel modified by methyltriethoxysilane(MTES) had a denser lamellar structure, the initial decomposition temperature rose to 314.6℃, the water contact angle was as high as 115°, the specific surface area was 109.42 cm3/g, the density was 0.045 g/cm3, and the porosity was greater than 95%.

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Progress on Lignocellulose-based Magnetic Adsorbents for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions
Xuan ZHOU, Can JIN, Guifeng LIU, Shuping HUO, Guomin WU, Zhenwu KONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 123-132.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.016
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Pollution by heavy metals is a serious environmental problem. Lignocellulose offers the advantages of high-capacity storage, renewability, and biodegradability, while offering excellent adsorption performance and being easy to recycle. As such, it is being increasingly used as a magnetic adsorbent for the removal of metal ions from polluted water. Starting with a brief description of magnetic nanomaterials, this review focuses on the preparation of cellulose-, lignin-, and hemicellulose-based magnetic adsorption materials, both domestically and overseas, summarizing and comparing their abilities to adsorb different heavymetal ions. In addition, the adsorption abilities and factors influencing the removal of different heavy metal ions are discussed in detail. Finally, future development directionsfor lignocellulose-based magnetic adsorbents are discussed.

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Research Progress of Lignin-based Porous Carbon Materials and Its Applications in Water Purification
Can JIN, Yunlong LIU, Shuping HUO, Guomin WU, Guifeng LIU, Zhenwu KONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (4): 111-123.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.04.015
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Due to the excellent physical and chemical properties such as high specific surface area, large porous volume and adjustable structure morphology, porous carbon materials have been proven to show outstanding adsorption performance for water pollutants. Lignin is a kind of natural and abundant biomass resource. It has the characteristics of high carbon content, low cost, and easy to modification. Thus, it has been regarded as an ideal precursor for replacing traditional fossil resources to prepare porous carbon materials. This review focuses on the preparation methods of lignin-based porous carbon materials and the application research progress in the adsorption and degradation of heavy metal ions, dyes, aromatic compounds, and antibiotics from water. Based on the problems existing in the application of water purification treatment, the development trend of lignin-based porous carbon materials is also prospected.

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Oil Cell Morphology, Essential Oil Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum Leaves Harvested in Spring and Autumn
Xian CHENG, Liangwu BI, Shengnan LI, Yuxiang CHEN, Zhendong ZHAO, Kailin MO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 38-44.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.006
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The tissue transparency method was used to observe the morphology of oil cells in the leaves of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum(Gamble) N. Chao ex H. W. Li in spring and autumn, and the density and diameter of the oil cells were determined. Cell wall structure of the oil cells was observed with scanning electron microscopy. GC-MS was used to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from the leaves of C. longepaniculatumin in spring and autumn.Eucalyptol, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene content was analyzed by GC. Finally, antioxidant activity of the essential oils was evaluated. The density of oil cells of C. longepaniculatum leaves in spring and autumn was (41±3) and (38±2) per mm2, the diameter was (51.87±1.64) and (36.89±2.64) μm, and the cell wall thickness was 1.65 and 0.63 μm, respectively. The extraction yields of essential oils from C. longepaniculatum leaves were 4.45% and 3.09%(based on dry weight) in spring and autumn, respectively. Sixteen types of chemical compounds were identified with GC-MS, and no significant difference was observed in the content of the three main components. The total antioxidant capacity of the essential oils from C. longepaniculatum leaves harvested in spring and autumn was 6.50 and 5.50 U/mL, respectively (40% of Vc), and the IC50 value corresponding to scavenging of DPPH free radicals was 0.2 g/L.

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Preparation of Xylooligosaccharides and Monosaccharides from Bamboo Chips by Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment
Yunni ZHAN, Chen HUANG, Xin HAO, Zimeng WANG, Yongjun DENG, Guigan FANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 77-84.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.011
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Effects of liquid hot water pretreatment(LHWP) on the chemical composition, enzymatic digestibility, and xylooligosaccharides(XOS)concentration were investigated in Bambusa emeiensis. In addition, the physical and chemical structural variationsof thesamples before and after the pretreatment were studied using a X-ray diffraction(XRD)spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR). Results indicated that the xylan content was significantly decreased after LHWP, while the contents of glucan and lignin increasing accordingly. LHWP improved the enzymatic digestibility of the bamboo chips feedstock, and the enzymatic hydrolysis yield reached the maximum of 79.0%(glucan) and 92.0%(xylan) at a pretreatment intensity coefficiency of 4.50. However, the XOS concentration reached the maximum value(8.7 g/L)at an intensity coefficiency of 3.96(relative mass percentage of 55.3%), and decreased thereafter as the pretreatment strength was further increased. Finally only 0.5 g/L(relative mass percentage of 3.1%)XOS was obtained in the pretreatment prehydrolysate at an intensity coefficiency of 4.50.

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Aromatic Chemicals Produced by Hydrogenolysis of Lignin Extracted from Phyllostachys heterocycla Hydrolysis Residues
Yi CHENG, Yixin QU, Sheng YANG, Kang ZHUANG, Jidong WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (1): 60-66.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.01.009
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Two kinds of lignin were extracted from moso bamboo(Phyllostachys heterocycla) hydrolysis residue by hydrogen peroxide method and methanol method. The process of catalytic reductive hydrogenolysis was investigated. The results of two kinds of lignin conversion and product distribution were compared at the same reaction temperature and reaction time. Meanwhile, the optimal conditions of hydrogen peroxide lignin conversion were optimized. When the reaction temperature was 220 ℃, the reaction time was 60 min, lignin extracted by hydrogen peroxide could be converted entirely into soluble substance, and the monomer yield was 14.85%. The soluble substance yield of lignin extracted by methanol method was 96.8%, the monomer yield was 7.13%. The results showed that the conversion efficiency of hydrogen peroxide lignin to aromatic chemicals was higher than that of methanol lignin at reductive hydrogenolysis. The reductive hydrogenolysis process restored the benzoquinone of hydrogen peroxide lignin to the aromatic structure. The side chains in the product were mainly carbonyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, and alkane groups.

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Effect of Temperature on Curing Performance of Lignin-based Phenolic Resin Fibers
Xin LI, Yu REN, Jianxiang LIU, Zhengjun SHI, Zhifeng ZHENG, Can LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (2): 33-38.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.02.005
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In order to study the influence of temperature factors on the properties of lignin phenolic resin fiber, different heating rates and curing reaction temperatures were set under the curing bath condition with the hydrochloric acid/formaldehyde mass ratio of 1:1. The properties of the cured materials were characterized by FT-IR, TG, DSC, and mechanical property test. The effects of different temperatures on the mechanical properties, thermal properties and surface morphology of the fibers were investigated, and the curing behavior of lignin phenolic fibers was studied. The results showed that the internal materials continued to cross-link and the diameter of the cured fibers was thicker than that of the raw fibers after curing. The degree of curing reaction and the thermal stability increased with the increase of heating rate. Too fast heating rate led to the decrease of mechanical properties. The higher the curing temperature was, the smoother the surface of lignin phenolic fiber was. The mechanical properties of the fibers decreased with the increase of curing temperature. The most suitable curing temperature factors were the curing heating rate of 20 ℃/h and curing temperature of 170 ℃. Under these conditions, the tensile strength of the cured fiber was 178.24 MPa, and the elongation at break was 1.49%.

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Preparation and Application of Lignin-based Intumescent Flame Retardant
Mengke LIANG, Jing CHEN, Peng DAI, Xiaofeng MA, Meng ZHANG, Zhenyang LUO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (4): 10-16.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.04.002
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Lignin-based intumescent flame retardant(Lig-T) with carbon source, acid source and gas source was synthesized successfully by grafting nitrogen and phosphorus elements. The structure of the flame retardant Lig-T was proved by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR), elements analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS). The Lig-T was added to the epoxy resin with different mass fractions to obtain Lig-T/EP composite material. Thermogravimetric analysis, underwriters laboratories 94(UL-94) vertical buring test, oxygen index(LOI) test and cone calorimetry(Cone) test were used to investigate the thermal stability and flame retardancy of composite materials. The results showed that when the mass fraction of the Lig-T was 20%, the composite material 20% Lig-T/EP could reach the UL-94 V-0 level, the oxygen index value was as high as 28.5%, and the mass fraction of the residue increased from 14.8% to 20.2%.With the increase of the mass fraction of Lig-T, the total amount of heat release and the total amount of smoke released during the combustion process of the composite material decreased.

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