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PROSPECT ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY UTILIZATION
JIANG Jian-chun
   2002, 22 (2): 75-80.  
Abstract985)      PDF(pc) (619KB)(4419)       Save
Biomass energy is an important part of renewable energy.High effective utilization and development of biomass energy has positive effects on solving energy and environment problems.Since 1970's,in countries worldwide,especially in advanced countries,extra attentions have been paid to conduct researches on the application technique of biomass energy and a lot of research progress have been achieved,some of which have been used in industrial scale.In this paper,the progress of research and development in domestic and abroad,concerning biomass solidification,liquefaction,gasification and direct combustion technique,are summarized.According to our country's situation,proposals on research and development prospect are put forward.
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GERM PLASM APPRAISEMENTS OF POLYGONUM MULTIFLORUM FROM MAIN PRODUCING AREAS IN CHINA BY CONTENT OF TETRAHYDROXYSTILBENE
LI Zheng;HANG Yue-yu;ZHOU Yi-feng
   2003, 23 (04): 37-41.  
Abstract716)      PDF(pc) (941KB)(3184)       Save
Six wild and 2 cultivated populations of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.(heshouwu)were collected from main producing areas in China.HPLC was used to determine content of the characteristic component 2, 3, 5, 4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β- D-glucoside in root in order to appraise their germ plasms.Results of the study showed that, the sample from Guangxi Province is a variety of P.multiflorum Thunb.namely P.multiflorum Thunb.var angulatum S.Y.Liu, and its content of 2, 3, 5, 4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β- D-glucoside is relatively low.2, 3, 5, 4′-Tetrahydroxy-(stilbene)-2-O-β- D-glucoside contents of samples from Guizhou and Hubei are higher, while those from Sichuan and Henan are lower.It is also found that location, age and environment are the three important factors determining the (accumulation) of 2, 3, 5, 4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β- D-glucoside in the plant.
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Research Advance of Cardanol-based Surfactants
YANG Xiao-hui;;XIAO Guo-min;WANG Zhi-min;JING Fei;ZHOU Yong-hong;JIANG Jian-chun;
   2013, 33 (4): 144-148.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.027
Abstract757)      PDF(pc) (2023KB)(2919)       Save
This paper reviews recent progress in the cardanol-based surfactants. Especially, cardanol-based anionic surfactant (cardanol sulfonate, cardanol sulfate, cardanol carboxylate) and nonionic surfactants have been widely researched and deve-loped. However, the study of cardanol-based cationic surfactants has not yet been reported. In addition, this paper also prospects the research and application of the cardanol-based surfactants in future.
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Progress of Research on Preparation and Application of Nanocellulose Whiskers
LI Jin-ling;CHEN Guang-xiang;YE Dai-yong
   2010, 30 (2): 121-125.  
Abstract1223)      PDF(pc) (930KB)(2918)       Save
Advances of research on preparation, modification and application of nanocellulose whiskers(NCW) are reviewed. NCW are produced from natural cellulose by sulfuric-acid hydrolysis. Recent progress of research on hydrolysis process, preparation methods and conditions, characterization of properties of NCW, surface modification methods and the application of NCW in the fields of fine chemical and material science,etc. are mainly introduced.
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RESEARCH PROGRESS ON NATURAL RESOURCES AND APPLICATION OF THE BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCE——SQUALENE
ZHAO Zhen-dong;SUN Zhen
   2004, 24 (3): 107-112.  
Abstract620)      PDF(pc) (826KB)(2649)       Save
The sources and applications of the bioactive substance squalen that widely exists in animals and plants are reviewed.According to the citations,the most abundant sources of squalene in animals are deep-sea fishes,especially sharks,in which the highest content of squalene is approached to 69% based on liver oil.Amaranth seed oil,olive oil and palm oil are the major plant sources of squalene.The content of squalene is 5 %-8% in amaranth seed oil,and the highest content is 1.16% in olive oil.Because of the strong bioactivity,squalene is widely used in medical care fields and in cosmetics.Squalene is easy to oxidize,so it must be kept with suitable antioxidant during storage.
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PROGRESS ON RESEARCH OF NATURAL ROSEMARY ANTIOXIDANT
LIU Xian-zhang;ZHAO Zhen-dong;BI Liang-wu;HUANG Jin-long;XU Peng-xiang
   2004, 24 (S1): 132-138.  
Abstract721)      PDF(pc) (695KB)(2606)       Save
Rosemary ( Rosmarius officinalis L.), a plant of the family Labiatae, has been planted largely in south region of China. The essential oil of rosemary is a traditional natural perfume. The rosemary extract obtained from the residue after the removal of essential oil is a natural antioxidant that has a good antioxidative activity. Domestic and foreign researches on cultivation of rosemary, main chemical compositions of the extract, manufacture process of rosemary extract, utilization of rosemary extract as antioxidant in fats, oils, and foods were reviewed comprehensively. The prospect of the potential application of rosemary extract in other fields, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, was discussed.
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PROGRESS ON PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF BAMBOO CARBON AND BAMBOO DISTILLATE
HU Yong-huang
   2002, 22 (3): 79-83.  
Abstract945)      PDF(pc) (771KB)(2296)       Save
Theory and practice of thermolysis process to produce bamboo carbon and bamboo distillate,as well as their production technology,physical and chemical properties are summarized.General methods to produce bamboo carbon by kiln and furnace,and main applications of bamboo carbon and bamboo distillates are introduced.The ways of research on development and technology of bamboo carbon are also discussed.
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Research Progress and Applications of Macromolecular Polysaccharide-based Hydrogels for Functional Materials
JIANG Jianxin, LIU Yantao, ZHOU Ziyuan, DUAN Jiufang, SUN Dafeng
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2017, 37 (2): 1-10.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.02.001
Abstract866)      PDF(pc) (2331KB)(2154)       Save
Compared with the traditional polymer hydrogel materials, polysaccharide hydrogels are getting more attention of the people, because of its environmentally friendliness, biocompatibility, special functional and biodegradable advantages. The production methods of hydrogels from plant polysaccharides, marine polysaccharide, microbial polysaccharide and its blending polysaccharide were summarized, as well as the functional characteristics and characterization methods. And the applications of hydrogel materials in medicine and health care, food, cosmetics, agriculture, environmental protection and other fields were introduced. The application prospects of polysaccharide hydrogel in biosensor, bioreactor, artificial intelligence materials and antibacterial materials were discussed, and the main focus of future polysaccharide research were proposed, such as improving material performance and features, studying gel formation mechanism, and simulating function materials.
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SITUATION AND PROSPECT OF CHEMICAL UTILIZATION OF GALLOTANNINS IN CHINA
CHEN Jia-hong
   2000, 20 (2): 71-82.  
Abstract646)      PDF(pc) (1600KB)(2003)       Save
Gallotannin is an important part of vegetable tannin. Development and current situation of the natural resources, fundamental research of tannin chemistry, chemical processing and utilization of gallotannins in China were summarised. Its future developments were also expected.
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国家自然科学基金(50776035);教育部重大项目培育资金(705048);长江学者和创新团队计划 (IRT0552);国家 "863"计划(2007AA05Z408);国家自然科学基金-广东自然科学基金联合基金重点项目(U0733001)
ZHANG Jing-qiang;LIN Lu;SUN Yong;MITCHELL G;LIU Shi-jie
   2008, 28 (6): 109-114.  
Abstract694)      PDF(pc) (1184KB)(1922)       Save
The enormous hydrogen bondings and crystal structures of natural cellulose strongly retard the hydrolysis of native cellulose into soluble sugars, which can be converted into biofuels or high value chemical products. In this paper, recent researches on cellulose structure & hydrogen bonding, as well as some promising methods and theories of decrystallization, and applicational examples were described.
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SURVEY OF CHINESE GUM ROSIN INDUSTRY
China Golddragon Rosin Group Corp;Beijing 00;China
   2004, 24 (S1): 12-19.  
Abstract697)      PDF(pc) (940KB)(1890)       Save
Gum rosin is a kind of natural resin with high economic value. As an important chemical raw material, it is widely used in papermaking, adhesives, paint, printing ink, rubber, food and other industries. From a macroscopic point of view, this article gives a general introduction to China’s gum rosin industry in terms of history, current situation and prospects.
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APPLICATIONS OF LIGNIN IN THE FIELD OF POLYMERS
CHU Fu-qiang;HONG Jian-guo
   2003, 23 (3): 88-92.  
Abstract676)      PDF(pc) (679KB)(1873)       Save
Lignin, which exists as high polymer in plant, is a sort of environment friendly and reproducible natural resource, whose reserves in the world is next to cellulose.However, man has not made the most of it as yet.This article reviews the exploratory development of utilizing lignin in macromolecule field, which mostly includes synthesizing lignin phenol formaldehyde resin adhesives, polyurethane, polymerizing with epoxide as well as graft copolymerizing with vinyl monomer.Although these studies have taken some positive results, there is still the technology gap to carry through upon using lignin as one of raw material in high polymer industry.It has been gradually realized that measures to decrease the polydispersity and increase the reactivity of lignin may be the key to achieve the breakthrough in this field.
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STUDIES ON SYNTHESES AND PROPERTIES OF WATERBORNE POLYURETHANE RESIN FROM CASTOR OIL
QU Jin-qing;CHEN Huan-qin
   2004, 24 (3): 78-82.  
Abstract548)      PDF(pc) (867KB)(1852)       Save
Waterborne polyurethane(WPU) was prepared by the reaction of castor oil(C.O.) with polyether glycol(N 210),dimethoxypropionic acid(DMPA) and toluene diisocyanate(TDI).The effects of mass ratio of castor oil,N 210,DMPA content,molar ratios of NCO to OH and NH 2/NCO on the properties were investigated.The structure of WPU was characterized by FT-IR.It was found that mechanical properties and water resistance of WPU coating film were increased with addition of castor oil.At 1:1-2 mass ratio of castor oil to N 210,1.6 molar ratio of NCO/OH,(5.5%) DMPA content and 0.50 molar ratio of NH 2/NCO, the castor oil waterborne polyurethane has excellent film-forming property,high hardness,good resistances to water and petrol,and excellent adhesion to base materials.
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Preparation and Apllication of Carbon Foam
ZHAO Xin;LI Wei;LIU Shou-xin;LI Bin
   2012, 32 (3): 117-125.  
Abstract931)      PDF(pc) (2668KB)(1839)       Save
Carbon foam, a new type of sponge-like carbon materials, has attracted considerable interest due to its special properties such as low density, high temperature tolerance and high mechanical strength. In this paper, the raw and preparation method of carbon foam was summarized. Influence of experiment factors on the structure and application performance of carbon foam was systematically interpreted. The future development of carbon foams is proposed.
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PROGRESS ON PREPARATION OF SUPERABSORBENTS FROM CELLULOSE
LI Jian-fa;SONG Zhan-qian
   2002, 22 (2): 81-85.  
Abstract663)      PDF(pc) (461KB)(1833)       Save
This paper reviews the progress of research and development on superabsorbents from cellulose.With different chemical modification methods such as etherification and graft copolymerization,cellulose derivatives have various water absorbence of 10-3 000 times difference,while graft copolymerization is the most effective method.Recent trends on preparing cellulose-based superabsorbents were evaluated,such as cationic superabsorbent and bacteria cellulose.Applications of superabsorbents in agriculture and forestry were also summarized.
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PREPARATION AND SIZING PROPERTIES OF NEUTRAL ROSIN SIZE
WANG F;WANG Fei;TANAKA Hiroo
   2000, 20 (2): 27-33.  
Abstract811)      PDF(pc) (758KB)(1825)       Save
Several alkyl rosin ester rosin sizes and glycerin rosin ester rosin size were prepared and used for paper sizing under neutral alkaline conditions.The sizing results indicated that the glycerin rosin ester rosin size could be quite effectively used in neutral alkaline paper sizing whereas the alkyl rosin ester rosin sizes lost the sizing efficiency,implying that the preparation of neutral rosin sizes would not depend only on the simple modification of carboxyl groups in rosin acids but relate to the structure of rosin ester.Although the addition of alkaline filler CaCO 3 decreased its sizing efficiency,the glycerin rosin ester rosin size exhibited good sizing even applied in the pulp suspension containing about 20% alkaline filler.
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Review on Research Progress and Development Trend of Activated Carbon at Home and Abroad
SUN Kang;JIANG Jian-chun
   2009, 29 (6): 98-104.  
Abstract792)      PDF(pc) (1351KB)(1783)       Save
The progress of technical studies on activated carbon production at home and abroad in recent years were introduced, such as pollution-free, low active agent consumption, pre-treatment, catalytic activation, template manufacture and physical-chemical united techniques. Meanwhile, the progress was discussed in researching the application technology of activated carbon, such as hydrogen preservation, natural gas peak load regulation, VOC recovery, oxygen-enrichment, photo-catalysis, temperature controlling, flowers fresh-keeping, soil improving, fuel cell electrodes, as well as regeneration of saturatedly adsorbed activated carbon. The existing problems and future trends of production and application technology of activated carbon were also discussed.
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HPLC DETERMINATION OF RESVERATROL CONTENT IN POLYGONUM CUSPIDATUM AND THE STABILITY OF RESVERATROL
CAO Yong;YU Hua-zhong;ZHANG Min;LI Guo-zhang;XIAO Lang-tao
   2004, 24 (2): 61-64.  
Abstract741)      PDF(pc) (778KB)(1740)       Save
Resveratrol is one of the most feasible medicine for preventing human cancer.It is unstable against light and heat.An extracting method was established in this study,which is simple,and of high yield.Study on the conditions of high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of resveratrol content was investigated to be as follow:Shim-park CLC-ODS column(150 mm×6.0 mm,i.d.5 μm),mobil phase CH 3CH 2CN:H 2O(14:59),flow rate 1.0 mL/min,wavelength 306 nm.The lineal correlation between content of resveratrol and peak area is good.The lower detection limit was 10 ng/mL.
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Research Progress of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacology of Cassia
LI Ting;FENG Zhan-min;YANG Xun-yun;WANG Li-qin
   2012, 32 (6): 107-118.  
Abstract644)      PDF(pc) (1564KB)(1733)       Save
Plants of Cassia genus were widely used as folk medicines. This review summarized the research progress of the chemical constituents of Cassia and their pharmacological effects. It will provide reference basis for their further research and development.
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The Improvement in the Determination Method of Hydroxyl Value for Lignin
SUN Ge-liang;WAN Ping-yu;ZHAO Lei;CHEN Yong-mei;LI Gai-yun;QIN Te-fu
   2012, 32 (3): 51-55.  
Abstract962)      PDF(pc) (974KB)(1724)       Save
Hydroxyl value of lignin was determined by the phthalic anhydride-pyridine method which is the standard method for determination of hydroxyl value for polyether glycol. The accuracy of hydroxyl value via acid value and base value measurement was improved, while this novel method employed for sodium ligninsulfonate and enzymatic hydrolysis lignin from cornstalks. Replacing pyridine with ethanol as solvent and HCl with potassium hydrogen phthalate for measuring base value, enhanced the accuracy and precision of the measured results. The deviation of base value is less 1%. In addition, the cost of determination decreased, compared with the traditional method.
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Chemical Constituents of Ziziphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa Roots
CHE Yong CHE Yong;LI Song-tao;ZHANG Yong-qing
   2012, 32 (4): 83-86.  
Abstract673)      PDF(pc) (1079KB)(1658)       Save
Chemical constituents in the roots of Ziziphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa were studied. The consti-tuents were separated and purified by repeated column chromatagraphy with silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated based on the chemical and spectral analysis. Seven compounds were iso-lated from petroleum,EtOA fractions. Their structures were identified as lupeol(Ⅰ), betulinic acid(Ⅱ), ceanothic acid(Ⅲ), isoceanothic acid(Ⅳ), stigmasterol(Ⅴ), 3-O- β-D-glucopyranosyl-stigmasterol(Ⅵ), adouetine X(Ⅶ). Compounds Ⅳ, Ⅵ, Ⅶ were obtained from the plant for the first time.
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STUDIES ON PURIFICATION OF ALKALI LIGNIN FROM RICE STRAW PULPING WITH ORGANIC SOLVENTS
YANG Yi-qin;LI Zhong-zheng
   2000, 20 (04): 40-44.  
Abstract556)      PDF(pc) (828KB)(1639)       Save
Alkali-lignin from rice straw pulping was purified with organic solvents. Effect of different solvents and solvent dosage on yield and composition of purified lignin were investigated. The suitable solvent system and purifying conditions were determined. The results indicated: the optimum solvent system was a mixture of acetone and water(6:4,v/v), solvent to lignin ratio 10:1. Under this condition, yield of lignin was 85.20%, content of lignin increased from 31.13% to 44.86%, content of total sugar and ash in purified lignin were reduced 76.86% and 20.87%, respectively.
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CURRENT TURPENTINE INDUSTRY AND MARKET
JIA Jin-lian
   2001, 21 (04): 59-64.  
Abstract550)      PDF(pc) (727KB)(1622)       Save
This article briefs current situation of world turpentine industry and market.By analyzing historical data, the prospect of turpentine market is described.
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STUDY ON PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF ROSE ESSENTIAL OIL
MA Xi-han;WANG Yong-hong;WEI Qin;ZHANG Guang-jun
   2004, 24 (S1): 80-84.  
Abstract708)      PDF(pc) (1087KB)(1613)       Save
Factors influencing the yield of essential oil from the rose flowers are studied both by orthogonal and single factor’s analysis experiments. The processing technology for the production of essential oil is put forward. It has been found that the optimized technological parameters are: proportion of water to flowers 4:1; distilling time 4 h; distilling rate 10% of the volume of distilling vessel per hour;amount of flowers loaded 75% of the volume of distilling vessel;brine concentration 2.5% to which significantly increased the yield of rose oil. The order of the influencing significance of the parameters tested is: distilling time>distilling rate>ratio of flowers to water. To produce rose water, the ratio of distillate to water added is 2:1, distilling time 1 h.
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REVIEW ON FAST PYROLYSIS OF BIOMASS FOR BIO-OIL
LIU Shou-xin;ZHANG Shi-run
   2004, 24 (3): 95-101.  
Abstract675)      PDF(pc) (770KB)(1558)       Save
Fast pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil is a kind of new technology of energy conversion which attracts growing research rapidly.Bio-oil can replace traditional mineral fuels or be used as raw material to produce special chemicals such as slow-releasing fertilizers.In the present article,the principle,characteristics,reactors,and special requirements for the fast pyrolysis of biomass were reviewed.The potential application fields of bio-oil were summarized.A practical study showed the application of this technology on waste wood and indicated the potential application of this approach to control contaminations.
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Spray Drying of Edible Cactus (Opuntia Milpa Alta)
ZHANG Cai-hong;HUANG Li-xin;XIE Pu-jun;YOU Feng;ZHANG Yao-lei
   2013, 33 (5): 13-19.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.05.003
Abstract726)      PDF(pc) (10755KB)(1549)       Save
Spray drying(SD) is used to investigate the dehydration of Opuntia Milpa Alta. Inlet air temperature in spray drying is usually a significant factor for final product property. Different inlet air temperatures, i.e., 90, 140, 190 and 240℃, are selected in this study. The properties of dried cactus powder, i.e., residual moisture, particle size distribution, SEM, vitamin C, flavone, and color difference, are presented. The results showed that all residual moisture in product by SD was less than 6%. SEM of the dried product showed that the particles were round with some shrinkage hole and some were maintained in strip due to initial mill process. Most mean particle sizes were changed from 8.6 μm to 24.3 μm. It was also seen that the measured vitamin C in dried products and color difference decreased while the inlet air temperature increased. Maximum vitamin C content at 1 776 μg/g was obtained when inlet air temperature 90℃ was used in spray drying. The flavone content of cactus powder was decreased while the inlet air temperature increased. Maximum flavone content of cactus powder was 2.28 mg/g at inlet air temperature 90℃.
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REFINING PROCESS AND ORGANIC COMPONENT OF WOOD VINEGAR
PIAO Zhe;YAN Ji chang;CUI Xiang lan;LIU Yue chun;CHU Ren he;LIAN Rui de
   2003, 23 (2): 17-20.  
Abstract1060)      PDF(pc) (940KB)(1525)       Save
In order to determine the technological conditions of refining wood vinegar used as acidic additives in beverage, feed of domestic animals and drinking water, the change of organic components in the refining process of wood vinegar was investigated with GC/MS in detail.Phenol, which is harmful to human body and domestic animals, was analytically traced as representative component.Result showed that through combinated application of several simple and typical refining unit operations, phenol and other hard removable harmful components could be removed.Through refining process, phenol concentration was reduced to undetectable degree from 836 mg/L of the original wood vinegar.
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STUDY ON EXTRACTION OF CINNAMON OIL BY SUPERCRITICALCARBON DIOXIDE
HUANG Biao;LIU Yan;CHEN Yan;LIAO Yi-qiang
   2003, 24 (1): 59-62.  
Abstract743)      PDF(pc) (594KB)(1508)       Save
Extraction technique of Chinese cinnamon oil by supercritical carbon dioxide method was studied.Factors affecting extraction yields,such as temperature,pressure,CO 2 flow rate and bulk density of the raw material,were discussed.By orthogonal experiment,optimal technological conditions were achieved as follows:extracting temperature 40℃;extracting pressure 35 MPa;CO 2 flow rate 30 kg/h;bulk density of raw material(0.44±0.02)g/mL.Oil yield obtained by this method is 5 times more than that by steam distillation method.The obtained cinnamon oil is of brownish red color with right pure odor.
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ADVANCES IN STUDIES ON MECHANISM OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION BY ENZYMIC HYDROLYSIS AND OXIDATION
WANG Xi-guo;YANG Qian;YAN Hong
   2005, 25 (3): 125-130.  
Abstract593)      PDF(pc) (756KB)(1503)       Save
The development and application of cellulose is limited because the mechanism of cellulose bio-degradation has not yet been clearly understood. Since hypothesis of C 1—C x was suggested, other theories of degradation were suggested to modify the former. It is obvious that enzymic hydrolysis mechanism of cellulose alone could not explain degradation of natural cellulose completely. In this article, representative enzymatic synergisms, hypothesis of cellobiohydrolase(CBH) synergism, HO· radical oxidation and cellobioes dehydrogenase have been mainly introduced. The pathway of cellulose degradation could be better understood through combination of hydrolysis mechanism and oxidation mechanism.
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STUDIES ON TECHNOLOGY OF ULTRASONIC EXTRACTION OF MALVA SYLVESTRIS L.VAR. MAURITIANA PIGMENT
WANG Zhen yu;ZHAO Xin
   2003, 23 (2): 65-67.  
Abstract663)      PDF(pc) (475KB)(1502)       Save
Malva sylvestris L.var. mauritiana Miller is an annual and cultivated herb.It blossoms largely and the flower contains a great deal of red pigment, which is an important natural pigment resourse applicable broadly in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.Pigment of M.sylvestris L.var. mauritiana is a kind of anthocyanin which can be decomposed and decolorized easily under routine extracting technological condition.Technology of ultrasonic extraction of pigment has the advantages of short time, high efficiency and high yield without decomposition and decoloration of pigment caused by long time and high temperature conditions.Preliminary investigations on technological conditions of ultrasonic extraction were carried out to obtain the optimum technological parameter as follows:ultrasonic frequency 30 kHz, concentration of sulfuric acid 2%, extraction time 40 min, temperature 50℃.
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