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Hydrolysis Kinetics of Microcrystalline Cellulose Catalyzed by Fe 3+ and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
REN Ling-bing;CAO Qing;XIE Xiao-ling
   2012, 32 (4): 117-122.  
Abstract696)      PDF(pc) (1118KB)(1183)       Save
The microcrystalline cellulose was hydrolyzed in the presence of 1g/L FeCl 3 and 2% hydrochloric and the hydrolysis kinetics was investigated in this study. According to the principle of minimum of residue error S between actual yields of glucose and calculated value from the established function, the objective function is selected. The results indicated that the activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction for microcrystalline cellulose and glucose can be significantly reduced due to the presence of H + and Fe 3+. For the hydrolysis reaction of microcrystalline cellulose and glucose, the activation energy is 81.70kJ/mol and 43.85kJ/mol, respectively. The hydrolysis constant rate of microcrystalline cellulose is 0.0414, 0.0732 and 0.1153h -1 at the temperature of 130, 140 and 150℃, respectively. For glucose, it is 0.2053, 0.2424 and 0.3565 h -1 at the corresponding temperatures.
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Development Status and Prospect of Biomass Gasification Technology
Xueqin LI, Peng LIU, Youqing WU, Tingzhou LEI, Shiyong WU, Sheng HUANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 113-121.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.016
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In order to promote the development of biomass gasification technology and the utilization of gasification products, the development and industrial status of biomass gasification technology, gasifier type and its development status at home and abroad were mainly introduced, and the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification technology were analyzed. At the same time, it is also found that China's biomass resources had great potential and biomass energy had the excellent characteristics of renewability, such as renewable, less pollution, large reserves, wide distribution, zero carbon emissions and so on. However, it was difficult to internationalize because of a series of problems such as imperfect of collection-storage-transportation system, shortage of capital chain and more by-products. It was further prospected that biomass gasification in China should not only take a basic research, but also consider the overall demand of biomass gasification technology and the competition with other technologies as the future development direction and important key point. This paper was expected to lay a solid foundation for the further development of biomass gasification technology and the high-value utilization of gasification products.

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Research Progress on Nanocellulose and Its Use in Lithium Batteries
Ying WANG, Chunhui MA, Jin ZHOU, Mengyang LI, Jinquan YUE
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (6): 105-116.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.014
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As a natural material with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, nano-cellulose has unique structure and excellent mechanical properties. It has been widely used in the construction of electrochemical energy storage system of lithium-ion batteries(LIBs), and has made significant progress. This thesis provided an overview of the preparation and modification methods of cellulose nanofibrils(CNF), cellulose nanocrystals(CNC) and bacterial cellulose(BC) in the context of the application of advanced energy storage devices LIBs and green materials nanocellulose, and reviewed the research progress on the application of nanocellulose in the field of LIBs. It was mainly divided into three aspects: first, nanocellulose-based flexible LIBs electrodes; second, carbon materials derived from nano cellulose as electrodes; third, nano cellulose derived battery separator. Finally, some problems in this field were analyzed, summarized and prospected.

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Bactericidal Activities of Spicy Essential Oils on Microorganisms in Crude Food
DUAN Xue-juan;WU Ke-gang;CHAI Xiang-hua
   2012, 32 (3): 87-91.  
Abstract674)      PDF(pc) (986KB)(907)       Save
Bactericidal activities of seven spicy essential oil components on five microorganisms ( Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus Aurous, Saimonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio Parahemolyticus) were studied by plate dilution method and transferring substrate cob method. Results showed that salicylaldehyde had the best bactericidal activity,followed successively by thymol, cinnamic aldehyde, anethole, eugenol, citral, vanillin. The optimal composite essential oil (salicylaldehyde∶cinnamic aldehyde∶thymol∶anethole 2∶5∶20∶5.) was obtained through orthogonal test. The minimum bactericidal mass concentration of the composite essential oil for killing five pathogens was 0.25 mg/L, only 1/2 of that of salicylaldehyde. Synergistic sterilization effects of composite essential oil was analyzed. The composite essential oil showed a strong synergistic effect on Listeria monocytogenes, an additive effect on Staphylococcus Aurous,Escherichia Coli and Vibrio Parahemolyticus, and unrelated effect on Salmonella.
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Research Progress in Preparation of Biomass Based 2, 5-Furan Dicarboxylic Acid from Furoic Acid
Chun CHANG, Jinsheng WU, Zhiyong CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.001
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As a green bio-based platform chemical, 2, 5-furan dicarboxylic acid(FDCA) was widely used in polyester, plasticizer, fire protection, medicine, etc. At present, according to the distinction of raw materials for the synthesis of FDCA, the synthetic routes of FDCA could be divided into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) route, furoic acid route and other raw material routes. Among them, furfural acid could be prepared from the oxidation of bulk bio-based chemical furfural, and the industrial production of furfural made the preparation of FDCA from furfural acid had the potential advantages of green and economical. Based on this, this paper reviews the research status of four methods for preparing FDCA from furoic acid, including: disproportionation, carbonylation, carboxylation and biocatalysis methods. The paper also summarizes a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each method and highlights the progress made in their respective research fields. A comparative analysis indicates that the C-H carboxylation method is a gentle and environmentally friendly process, demonstrating significant potential for large-scale production.

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Research Progress on Modification and Application of Cellulose Acetate
Huimin ZHOU,Jie LU,Yi CHENG,Yanna LYU,Haisong WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.04.001
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The hydrophilic, ductile, thermoplastic and biodegradable properties of cellulose acetate (CA) were introduced, and the basic structure and market application of three kinds of cellulose acetate were summarized.It was pointed out that CA still had some disadvantages such as poor thermal stability at high temperature, low mechanical strength and easily being contaminated. The impacts of the physical modification and chemical modification on the properties of CA were also reassessed.It could conclude that the chemical reaction with polymer could change the structure or properties of CA.The fouling resistance, thermoplastic, selective and reuse of the CA were improved greatly, while the physical modification could improve the porosity and thermal stability of CA membrane, and the membrane mechanical strength, metal ion exclusion rate and the water flux were improved. The applications of CA in seawater desalination, adsorption of toxic substances in flue gas, preparation of biomedical membrane, drug delivery, tissue repair and regeneration, biosensor, outdoor protection and air purification were also summarized, and the market prospect and development trend of CA were prospected.

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Research Progress of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Euscaphis Plants
Liangjie TANG, Wei LUO, Hulan CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 153-170.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.019
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The main chemical constituents of Euscaphis plants are triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, sesquiterpenoids, etc. Modern research shown that the extracts and monomeric compounds of the Euscaphis plants had anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumour, anti-hepatic fibrosis and other pharmacological effects. At present, species delimitation of Euscaphis was changed and it was not very clear whether there were differences in chemical composition between the different varieties. Through the systematic search and summary of the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of Euscaphis plants, and we deeply elaborated whether differences in chemical composition was existed between different species and possible differential components, in order to provide a reference for the classification, development and use of Euscaphis plants.

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Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Technology of Saponins from Gleditsia sinensis Thorn by RSM and Its Hypoglycemic Activity
Yong LIU, Caihong ZHANG, Pujun XIE, Yejun DENG, Lixin HUANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 12-18.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.002
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On the basis of single factor experiment, response surface methodology(RSM) was used to optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction optimum process of saponins from Gleditsia sinensis Thorn(GST), and the inhibitory activities of the extracts on α-glucosidase and α-amylase were investigated under the optimal extraction conditions. The results showed that the optimal ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions were solid-liquid ratio of 16:1(mL: g), ethanol volume fraction of 60%, ultrasonic time of 80 min and extraction temperature of 50℃. Under these conditions, the yield of total saponins was 13.28%±0.25%, and the IC50 value of α-glucosidase was (0.146±0.019) g/L, which was stronger than that of positive control acarbose with the median inhibitory concentration(IC50) value of (0.48±0.18) g/L. When the mass concentration of the extract was 2 g/L, the inhibition rate of α-amylase could reach 35.13%±0.58%, indicating that GST had the potential development into a drug for type II diabetes.

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Preparation of Activated Carbon by Steam Re-activation for Ionic Liquid Electrolyte Supercapacitors
CHEN Lijing, ZUO Songlin, ZHANG Qiuhong, CHEN Jixi, WANG Yongfang
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2017, 37 (1): 87-93.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.011
Abstract684)      PDF(pc) (1558KB)(737)       Save
In order to improve the pore structure and electrochemical performance of commcercially available activated carbons, the coal-based activated carbon(CAC), coconut shell-based activated carbon(CSAC) and bamboo-based activated carbons(BAC) were chosen for the steam re-activated. The pore structure and electrochemical performance of the activated carbons were characterized by using nitrogen adsorption, galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS). The effects of the re-activation parameters of the activation temperature and dosage of steam on the pore structure and electrochemical properties of activated carbons were investigated. The results showed that the steam re-activation could significantly improve the development of pore structure, especially the mesopores, and the adsorption capacity of iodine and methylene blue as well as the electrochemical performance. The properties of coconut shell-based activated carbon was significantly improved by the re-activation compared with other activated carbons. After re-activation, the specific capacitance of the coconut shell-based activated carbon could reach 106 F/g, which was 2.5 times of the pristine activated carbon.
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Synthesis of Blue and Green Lignin-based Luminescent Carbon Dots by Hydrothermal-Nitric Acid Oxidation
Ying WANG, Bang AN, Mingcong XU, Jinquan YUE, Shouxin LIU, Wei LI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 33-39.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.005
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Blue luminescent carbon quantum dots(B-CQDs) were synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal method using lignin and m-phenylenediamine as precursors. Green luminescent carbon quantum dots(G-CQDs) were synthesized by nitric acid oxidation. The optical properties and structures characteristics of these two CQDs were characterized by UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, TEM, FT-IR and XPS. The cytotoxicity and cell imaging properties of G-CQDs were also tested. The results showed that nitric acid played an important role in the synthesis of G-CQDs. The oxidation of nitric acid increased the graphite N content, deepened the graphitization, passivated the surface state, and red-shifted the fluorescence emission wavelength. The results of structural characterization showed that the prepared B-CQDs and G-CQDs were mainly composed of C, N and O elements. All of them had abundant hydrophilic groups such as —OH, —NH, C—O and —COOH on the surface, which were monodisperse in water with the average particle size were 1.3 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. The results of optical property analysis showed that the excitation wavelengths of B-CQDs and G-CQDs were Ex=392 nm and Ex=446 nm, and the corresponding emission wavelengths were 488 nm and 514 nm, respectively. They exhibited excitation-dependent fluorescence emission behavior and excitation-independent emission behavior, respectively. The results revealed that the possible emission mechanism of G-CQDs belonged to the bandgap fluorescence emissions based on conjugated π-domains. The synthesized G-CQDs with excellent photoluminescence, stable fluorescence and low cytotoxicity could be applied to bioimaging of HeLa cells.

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Preparation of NCC Assisted NaClO Oxidized Starch and Its Influence on the Properties ofComposite Film
JI Dexian, LIN Zhaoyun, XIA Yuanyuan, YANG Guihua, CHEN Jiachuan
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (5): 33-40.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.05.005
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The effect of NaClO effective chlorine dosage on the performance of starch and the subsequent composite films was explored. The composite films were fabricated with oxidized starch, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and glycerol (GL), which corn starch was used as raw material and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC)/NaClO was applied as oxidation system. The carboxyl content, molecular weight, surface morphology, crystal structure, and the performance of composite films of the oxidized starch were characterized. The results showed that the oxidation degree of starch increased with increasing NaClO effective chlorine dosage, and increased by 1.17% with 10.0%(Significantly improved comparing with 0.36% of the carboxyl content of NaClO oxidized starch without NCC) with the assistance of NCC; When the amount of NaClO is 8%, the M w and M n were 97.33% and 97.27% lower than that of native corn starch. The surface was eroded and crystallinity was reduced after oxidation of starch. However, the films'transparency was improved (The maximum transparency is up to 78.50%). The increasing oxidation degree of oxidized starch contributed to the good performance of the composite film with high water resistance and the increase of the contact angle as well as tensile strength, whereas led to the decrease of the air permeability and tensile strain. When the amount of NaClO is 10%, the mass loss ratio of the composite film is 23.14%, the contact angle is 101.0° in 15 s, the air permeability is 0.10 cm 3/(cm 2·s), the tensile stress is 24.01 MPa, tensile strain is 2.14% and Young's modulus is 1 452.25 MPa.
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Preparation of Rhododendron× pulchrum Sweet Flowers Anthocyanins Microcapsule and Its Stability
Mei ZHANG, Yanjie ZHANG, Weijian CHEN, Huafang JING, Benyong LOU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 19-26.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.003
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In order to improve the stability of anthocyanins and broaden their application in functional products, the preparation process of Rhododendron pulchrum flowers anthocyanin microcapsules was optimized by response surface methodology, which was made using gum acacia and whey protein as wall materials and anthocyanin as core material. The anthocyanin microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscope(SEM), Fourier infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and thermogravimetry(TG). The results showed that the optimal microencapsulation conditions for the preparation of anthocyanin microcapsules by spray drying were as follows: wall-core ratio of 4:1, inlet air temperature of 165℃, and feed flow of 500 mL/h. Under these conditions, the embedding rate of anthocyanin microcapsules was(89.28±1.05)%. SEM showed that anthocyanin microcapsules were uniform spherical particles with a diameter of about 4.0 μm, compact structure, no cracks and non-sticking. FT-IR analysis showed that R. pulchium anthocyanins was embedded in the film formed by gum acacia and whey protein. TG analysis showed that the quality of anthocyanins decreased significantly at 197.7℃. Comparatively, the significant mass loss of anthocyanin microcapsules could be found only at 237.5℃. The storage stability analysis showed that the retention rate of R. pulchium flowers anthocyanin microcapsules was significantly higher than that of unembedded anthocyanins owing to the influence of light and temperature.

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Preparation of Porous Graphite Carbon Nitride and Its Visible Light Catalytic Conversion of Lignin
Chunyu REN, Xiangyu LIN, Zhuomin WANG, He LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 116-126.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.015
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Porous graphitic carbon nitride(mpg-CN) material with large surface area(126.6 m2/g) was successfully prepared by removing silica from a graphitic carbon nitride(g-C3N4)/silica composite, where the latter was synthesized using urea and tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS) as precursors through thermal polycondensation. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, SEM, TEM, XRD, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy(PL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) were used to analyze the internal structure, physical morphology, crystalline form and photoelectrical properties of the catalyst. The results showed that the introduction of TEOS had almost no effect on the crystal structure and band gap of the catalyst, while it could increase the specific surface area, pore volume and pore size of mpg-CN, thus providing more active sites. mpg-CN had lower photogenerated carrier recombination rate, higher photogenerated carrier separation efficiency and mobility, which was beneficial to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. To test the photocatalytic activity and product selectivity of the catalyst with different atmospheres and solvents conditions, a lignin model compound 1(2-phenoxy-1-phenylethanol) was used as the substrate. The results showed that under the conditions of catalyst mpg-CN, illumination, O2 atmosphere and solvent of CH3CN for 7.5 h, the conversion rate of 2-phenoxy-1-phenylethanol can reach 98.06%, and the selectivity of C-C bond cleavage was 91.79%. The result of the capture experiment proved that the photo-generated hole(h+) was the main active substance in the induced reactions. mpg-CN also had good stability and recycling performance, and the conversion rate of model compound 1 was 93%-98% when it was recycled for 1-8 times. Furthermore, the catalyst also showed a high conversion rate of 93.18% for the photocatalytic conversion of complex dimer lignin model compound 1b(1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-propane-1-diol).

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Synergistic Effect of Co-pyrolysis of Biomass and Plastics
Shiqi LIU,Suping ZHANG,Taili YU,Qinjie CAI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (3): 34-42.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.03.005
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The co-pyrolysis activities of sawdust/low-density polyethylene(LDPE) were studied in fixed-bed reactor. The effect of temperature on the co-pyrolysis behavior was also investigated by comparing with sawdust and LDPE individually. The results showed that the bio-oil yield could be effectively improved by the co-pyrolysis process, the maximum bio-oil yield(56.84%) was obtained at 600℃, which was 6.44 percentage point higher than the theoretical value. The composition of biomass and LDPE co-pyrolysis liquid products was analyzed by GC-MS. It was found that the bio-oil components produced by co-pyrolysis were mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and phenols. Some specific components, such as undecanol, heptenal and other oxygen-containing long-chain compounds, were also produced during the co-pyrolysis process, which was the product of free radical interaction between biomass and LDPE. The synergistic effect of co-pyrolysis of sawdust and LDPE was studied by thermogravimetry-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the maximum reaction rate temperature during co-pyrolysis was 490℃, which was about 22℃ lower than 512℃, which was the temperature of maximum reaction rate in LDPE individual pyrolysis. The hydroxyl radical generated during the lignin cracking process combining with the small molecular produced by the cleavage of LDPE formed undecanol, octyl-phenol and the like, and the furans and aldehydes formed during the pyrolysis of cellulose were reacted with the resulting CnHm formed by cleavage of LDPE to obtain the substances such as 2-butyltetrahydrofuran, heptenal, dodecanal or the like.

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Recent Progress in Preparation and Application of Bio-based Hydrogels
Shuo WANG, Yonggui WANG, Zefang XIAO, Yanjun XIE
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 122-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.017
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Firstly, this review introduced the research background and application status of bio-based hydrogels. According to the different crosslinking mechanisms, physical and chemical hydrogels were classified and described. Then, the hydrogels prepared from cellulose, chitosan, protein and other bio-based materials were summarized based on the classification of the used biomass, including the solvents system of cellulose, the preparation of cellulose-based hydrogels and modification of cellulose derivatization. Also, the feedstock sources and modification methods of chitosan-based hydrogels, as well as cross-linking mechanisms such as electrostatic interaction and imine bond formed by amine groups on their molecular chains were assembled. Protein-based hydrogels with good biocompatibility and bioactivity, formed by β-folded self-assembly of polypeptide chains were depicted as well in this review. Similarly, bio-based hydrogels prepared by using physical or chemical crosslinking of hydrophilic natural polymers such as starch, sodium alginate and carrageenan, were introduced respectively. At the same time, the main applications of functionalized bio-based hydrogels in the biomedical fields were described in detail, including drug sustained release, targeted delivery, cell media, tissue repair scaffolds, wound dressings, etc. In addition, the application and research progress of bio-based hydrogels as adsorbent materials in environmental field were reviewed, and their applications in packaging, sensing, photoelectric catalysis and other fields were also highlighted. Finally, the development opportunities and challenges of bio-based hydrogels were summarized, and the future research directions were prospected.

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Improving the Quality of Biofuel by Torrefaction
Yunhong SU, Jurong REN, Yunjuan SUN, Jianchun JIANG, Le XU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 27-35.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.004
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The effect of torrefaction on the quality of biofuel was investigated through a small torrefaction experimental equipment with rice husk(RH) and pine sawdust(PS) as the raw materials. The results showed that torrefied rice husk and sawdust exhibited an increase in fixed carbon content by 7.18% and 11.76%, compared with the raw materials. And the C element content with the largest increased of 3.50% and 5.80% for rice husk and sawdust, respectively. The contents of volatile matter and O element decreased significantly, and the content of H element also decreased slightly. The calorific value increased by 11.1%(RH) and 15.9%(PS), respectively. The hemicellulose contents in the torrefied rice husk and sawdust after reaching 300℃ were only 2.41% and 1.06%, respectively. The hemicellulose was decomposed both more than 90%. The relative content of lignin increased significantly, with the largest increases of 119%(RH) and 208%(PS), respectively. After biomass torrefaction, the internal fiber structure was destroyed and the grindability was improved. With the deepening of the torrefaction degree, the particles with the size below 0.15 mm increased significantly after torrefied rice husk being ground. The study found that oxygen-containing functional groups such as -OH and C-O were reduced, and the hydrophobicity of torrefied rice husk and sawdust increased by 28.08% and 25.66%, respectively, when torrefied at 250℃ for 30 min.

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国家自然科学基金(50776035);教育部重大项目培育资金(705048);长江学者和创新团队计划 (IRT0552);国家 "863"计划(2007AA05Z408);国家自然科学基金-广东自然科学基金联合基金重点项目(U0733001)
ZHANG Jing-qiang;LIN Lu;SUN Yong;MITCHELL G;LIU Shi-jie
   2008, 28 (6): 109-114.  
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The enormous hydrogen bondings and crystal structures of natural cellulose strongly retard the hydrolysis of native cellulose into soluble sugars, which can be converted into biofuels or high value chemical products. In this paper, recent researches on cellulose structure & hydrogen bonding, as well as some promising methods and theories of decrystallization, and applicational examples were described.
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A Review of Deep Eutectic Solvents for Lignin Isolation
Lei ZHONG,Chao WANG,Gaojin LYU,Xingxiang JI,Guihua YANG,Jiachuan CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 12-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.002
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Lignin is the most abundant renewable aromatic polymer in nature, which complex structure and compact connection with cellulose and hemicellulose through covalent bond and hydrogen bond make it difficult to be separated efficiently. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) is a novel kind of green ionic liquid, which has been successfully applied to lignin isolation due to its unique physical and chemical properties. The research progress of dissolution and extraction of lignin by deep eutectic solvents (DES) is reviewed in detail. From the point of view of the mechanism of dissolving lignin by DES, the effects of different factors(composition, proportion, pH value, functional groups of DES, water content of system, raw material, reaction time, temperature, catalyst, co-solvent, and so on) on lignin removal were emphatically expounded. Based on the research progress of DES in lignin extraction, the research progress and futuer application of lignin extraction were summarized and prospected.

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Evaluation of Chromogenic Reaction Ability of Hydrochloric Acid (Sulfuric Acid)-vanillin by the Colorimetry for Determining Tea Catechins Aggregates
SHAN Hong-li;QING Yu;DU Xiao;LIU Dong-na
   2012, 32 (3): 71-76.  
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Chromogenic reaction level of catechins from the green tea and the black tea with hydrochloric acid(sulfuric acid-vanillin)-vanillin was determined in this paper. By determining and comparing the reaction coefficient, accuracy and precision, the color reaction ability of catechins reacted with acid vanillin was evaluated. The results showed that the reaction system was sensitive to catechins with a high linear correlation( R HA 2=0.997 6±0.001 4, R SA 2=0.997 8±0.001 8). It was also seen that the chromogenic reaction coefficients from both systems were less than the Roberts coefficient (145.68) obtained from the empirical formula for calculating catechins aggregates. The recoveries from both system were more than 94.22% and all the variation coefficient of precision were less than 0.08%. This showed that both systems could determinate tea catechins aggregates. The chromogenic capability of tea catechins from different sources with acid-Vanillin was very different from each other ( F=37.434> F 0.01(1,5)=6.61). This results showed that two kinds of reaction systems could objectively reflect tea catechins aggregates. However, both recoveries and variation coefficient from the empirical formula were instable and the total catechins aggregates was higher than the reality.
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Preparation and Properties of Cellulose/PVA Composite Aerogels
Meng WANG, Li TANG, Li GAO, Rongfen QU, Tougen LIAO, He LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (3): 95-102.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.03.013
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Based on the freeze-drying process and chemical vapor deposition technology, polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) was compounded with cellulose to enhance the mechanical compressibility and dimensional stability of cellulose(CE) aerogels, followed by the fabrication of highly elastic, hydrophobic, and porous CE/PVA composite aerogels. The effects of PVA content on the mechanical properties of CE/PVA composite aerogels were studied. As the mass fraction of PVA increased, the compressive strength of cellulose aerogels increased. When the amount of PVA was 15% of the mass of cellulose, the compressive strain increased to 66 kPa, which was increased by 6.5 times. Simultaneously, the influences of silane modification on the microstructure, thermal stability, hydrophobicity, specific surface area and physical properties of composite aerogels were explored, and the results showed that S-CE/PVA composite aerogel modified by methyltriethoxysilane(MTES) had a denser lamellar structure, the initial decomposition temperature rose to 314.6℃, the water contact angle was as high as 115°, the specific surface area was 109.42 cm3/g, the density was 0.045 g/cm3, and the porosity was greater than 95%.

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Effect of Acetic Acid on Ethanol Pulping and Pulp Properties of Bambusa pervariabilis
Hongshuang BAI, Qingwei PING, Xueru SHENG, Jian ZHANG, Na LI, Haiqiang SHI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 43-48.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.006
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Using Bambusa pervariabilis as the raw materials the effects of acetic acid on the pulp yield, hardness, fiber crystallinity, fiber morphology and paper performance in ethanol pulping were studied. The results showed that the pH value of the solution decreased significantly from 7.3 to 4.1 after 2.0% acetic acid was added. The yield of coarse pulp decreased from 46.64% to 43.14%, which accelerated the degradation of carbohydrates. The Kappa number of pulp decreased from 52.31 to 48.90, which promoted the lignin removal during cooking. The relative molecular weight of lignin increased when the dosage of acetic acid was lower than 6%, while the relative molecular weight of lignin reduced when the dosage of acetic acid was higher than 6%. The addition of acetic acid made the coexistence of lignin degradation or condensation. The average length of the double mass(Lw) decreased from 1.72 to 1.58 mm, and the average width of the doublemass(Ww) decreased from 25.27 to 19.37 μm, which could make the fiber shrink and hard. The loose thickness and tear index of the finished paper were improved after adding acetic acid. The loose thickness increased from 2.16 to 2.30 cm3/g, and the tear index increased from 130.67 to 133.33(mN·m2)/g. The tensile index, flexability and break resistance decreased significantly. The tensile index decreased from 19.06 to 14.37(N·m)/g, the flexability decreased from 6 times to 3 times, and the break index decreased from 1.0 to 0.7 (kPa·m2)/g. The fiber crystallinity decreased from 54.67% to 48.71%. Acetic acid would destroy the fiber crystal zone, and the fiber crystallinity gradually decreased with the increase of acetic acid dosage, while the crystal zones of natural cellulose did not change.

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Preparation of Bamboo Pulp Fiber Hydrothermal Carbon Microspheres with Controllable Structure
Shitao WEN, Linxin DAI, Zhihui WANG, Zhenrui LI, Jiajun WANG, Xing'er LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 127-134.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.016
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In order to realize the preparation of morphologically controllable hydrothermal carbon microspheres, the effects of hydrothermal reaction conditions(reaction temperature, reaction time and reactant addition) on the morphology and physicochemical structure of the products were systematically studied using bamboo pulp fiber as a raw material. The obtained hydrothermal carbon was investigated by SEM, XRD, FT-IR and other characterization methods. The results showed that when the reaction temperature was 220℃, the reaction time was 6 h and the amount of reactant was 6 g, the carbon microspheres were dispersed and the size distribution was relatively uniform. The highest carbon fixation rate of the sample reached 24.3%, indicating that the preparation of hydrothermal carbon had a good carbon fixation ability. XRD results showed that hydrothermal carbon was an amorphous crystal. Functional gronp analysis showed that the surface of hydrothermal carbon was rich in a series ofoxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, ester and ether bonds. Elemental analysis showed that hydrothermal carbon had preferably carbon fixation ability. The specific surface area of the products ranged from 23.2-83.7 m2/g, and the pores were mainly mesopores. The main distribution range was 3-8 nm, and the maximum pore volume was 0.35 cm3/g.

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Research Progress in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins
Qian XU,Chen ZHANG,Jiawei WU,Jia OUYANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.001
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Anthocyanin is a kind of flavonoid which mainly exists in plants. It has strong biological activities such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidation, and is widely used in the field of nutrition and health care. Most anthocyanins are extracted directly from plants by physical or chemical means, but the yield is low, and the extracted anthocyanins are mostly mixtures due to the restrictions of time, region and season. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins have attracted much attention by researchers worldwide in recent years. As the biosynthesis of anthocyanins can be controlled artificially and the purity of the obtained products is high, it has been widely studied. Anthocyanins cannot exist stably in the environment, and need to be modified by glycosylation, acylation and methylation to increase their stability. The modified anthocyanins can be synthesized by microorganisms and significant color changes can be seen in the medium. The biosynthesis and modification of anthocyanins were reviewed in this paper, and the preparation technology of anthocyanin synthesis from plants and microorganisms was briefly introduced, the factors affecting anthocyanin synthesis were analyzed, and finally the future research direction of anthocyanin was predicted.

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Ultrasound-assisted Fenton-like Pretreatment of Eucalyptus for Enhancing Enzymolysis
Mengjie CHEN, Zhinan WANG, Shujie WANG, Yingshi HUANG, Xianfeng HOU, Zhenzhong GAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 98-104, 126.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.013
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To overcome problems in traditional Fenton pretreatment, an ultrasonic-assisted iron-loaded zeolite Fenton-like(UZF) system was constructed, and single factor method was used to determine optimal conditions for UZF pretreatment of eucalyptus, i.e., H2O2 concentration of 4%, ultrasonic power of 240 W, and treatment time of 90 min. Under these conditions, the reducing sugar produced by enzymatic enzymolysis of eucalyptus powder was as high as (435.12±7.69) mg/g. The mechanism of UZF pretreatment to enhance enzymolysis efficiency of eucalyptus was investigated by means of composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The changes of main components and groups, crystalline properties, and surface microstructure of eucalyptus samples before and after UZF pretreatment were analyzed. The results showed that pretreatment removed more lignin and hemicellulose, which increased destruction of amorphous area of cellulose, and surface holes of wood powder became more and surface was more rough. The experimental results of recycling showed that the iron-loaded zeolite had certain recycling ability. After four times of recycling, reducing sugar yield could still reach 1.87 times than that of untreated eucalyptus powder.

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Recent Progresses on the Catalytic Synthesis of Levulinate Esters
Lei LI, Minchao WANG, Jiao MA, Zhanwei XU, Yajing ZHANG, Songyan JIA
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 135-146.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.018
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In recent years, levulinic acid has been considered as a key biobased platform compound and attracted wide attention, which can be utilized in the synthesis of many high value-added chemicals. Among them, levulinates, as a class of important chemical products, can be used in alternative fuels, edible spices, plasticizers and other fields, especially as alternative fuels, which provides a feasible reference scheme for sustainable development. In this paper, the recent research progress on the catalytic synthesis of levulinates in the field of biomass conversion was reviewed. The reaction performances and related mechanisms were introduced involving in several approaches, such as the esterification of levulinic acid, the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol, the conversion of monosaccharides and cellulosic materials, respectively. The synthesis of levulinates was summarized and prospected.

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Preparation of Ionic Liquid-based Gel Electrolytes and Application in Supercapacitors
Jingya NAN,Gaitong ZHANG,Lijun WANG,Hongsheng WANG,Fuxiang CHU,Chunpeng WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (4): 17-23.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.04.003
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Soybean protein isolates (SPI) were integrated with polyacrylamide (PAAm) to form an ionic liquid-containing gel polymer as a new quasi-solid-state electrolyte, which could be used in supercapacitor. And the electrochemical performance and compressibility of supercapacitor were studied. The synergistic effect of SPI and PAAm endowed the gel electrolyte with excellent compressive resilience and fatigue resistance. Particularly, the gel electrolyte could maintain structural integrity even under 80% strain for 100 compression cycles, the plastic deformation was less than 15% and the energy loss coefficient was more than 0.1. The symmetric quasi-solid-state supercapacitor based on this gel electrolyte exhibited satisfied electrochemical performance, delivering the maximum energy density of 25.99 W·h/kg and the maximal power density of 3 600 W/kg. And the device could withstand 80% compression strain without structural fracture or damage, showing excellent compressibility and capacitive stability.

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Preparation of Amphoteric Cellulose Based Adsorbent and Its Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollutants from Wastewater
Yingnan SUN, Suzhen LIU, Haiming LI, Jingpeng ZHOU, Fengshan ZHANG, Yanzhu GUO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 143-152.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.018
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Amphoteric cellulose copolymers(CO-AC) adsorbents were prepared though free radical polymerization in one-pot process using cellulose as raw material and methacryloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride(METAC), acrylamide(AM), 2-acryloamino-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid(AMPS) as monomers and potassium persulfate as initiator. The structure and properties of CO-AC were characterized by elemental analyzer and fourier infrared spectrometer(FT-IR). It was found that active groups, e.g., quaternary amine, amide and sulfonic acid group were successfully introduced into the molecular chains of cellulose. Taking the removal rate and equilibrium adsorption capacity of CO-AC to NH4+ and H2PO4- as the evaluation indexes, the adsorption conditions were optimized and the influence of various factors on the adsorption capacity of CO-AC were also evaluated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, derived under the conditions of 1:2:3:3 molar ratio of cellulose glucose unit to AMPS, AM and METAC, was the best. In 50 mL of NH4+ and H2PO4- solution with a mass concentration of 150 mg/L, the maximum adsorption capacity of NH4+ was 77.4 mg/g when the addition amount of CO-AC was 100 mg and pH value was 7.0. The maximum adsorption capacity of H2PO4- was 61.2 mg/g, while the addition amount was 100 mg and the pH value was 5.0. The adsorption process of NH4+ and H2PO4- on CO-AC was well characterized by the quasi-second-order kinetic, internal diffusion of particle and Langmuir models, indicating that chemisorption and internal particle diffusion processes were the main rate-limiting steps, and the adsorption process was homogeneous monolayer adsorption.

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Research Progress in Wood Adhesives
Yufeng MA,Xuan'ang GONG,Chunpeng WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (2): 1-15.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.02.001
Abstract1016)   HTML1277290952)    PDF(pc) (1668KB)(1012)       Save

The consumption of wood adhesive in China is huge. However, the main wood adhesive based on formaldehyde is still prevalent. In recent years, environment friendly adhesives such as non-formaldehyde adhesives and biomass adhesives have developed rapidly. Herein, the recent research and application of wood adhesives including urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives, phenolic resin adhesives, melamine-formaldehyde resin adhesives, protein adhesives, lignin adhesives, starch adhesives, tannins adhesives, isocyanate adhesive, emulsion adhesives and pyrolysis biological oil adhesives were reviewed. The development trend and the research direction of wood adhesives were also prospected.

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Preparation of Antifreezing Soybean Protein-based Gel Electrolytes and Application in Electrochemical Capacitors
Fusheng YANG, Dingkun WANG, Fapeng WANG, Meihong LIU, Jingya NAN, Chunpeng WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 36-42.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.005
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An antifreezing soybean protein-based gel electrolyte was prepared by thermally induced polymerization using soybean protein(SPI), acrylamide(AAm) and ZnCl2 as raw materials. The effect of temperature on its ionic conductivity and mechanical property was investigated, and the mechanism was then analyzed. The results showed that the gel electrolyte had excellent frost resistance, and the introduction of ZnCl2 leaded to the formation of numerous Zn2+ solvation structures, which broke the hydrogen bonds among water molecules and reduced the freezing point of gel electrolyte. The synergistic effect of gel matrix and salt ions gave the gel electrolyte high compression resilience and fatigue resistance. The analysis of low-temperature ionic conductivity showed that when the ZnCl2 concentration exceeded 5 mol/kg, the ionic conductivity of gel electrolyte was still 3.65×10-3 S/cm at -30℃. The analysis of mechanical properties at low temperatures showed that the gel electrolyte could keep structural integrity after 100 compression cycles of 80% strain at -30℃, the stress retention remained more than 85% and the plastic deformation maintained 15%. At the same time, the gel electrolyte-based electrochemical capacitors assembled by gel electrolyte exhibited satisfied low-temperature resistance, which could work normally at -30℃ and maintain capacitance retention of 83.2%. The capacitance retention reached 92% after 10 000 cycles of charge and discharge at -30℃.

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Research Progress on Electrode Materials from Activated Carbon-based Supercapacitors
Haonan CHEN, Ting YU, Yali ZHOU, Xiping LEI, Xiaolin GUAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (5): 113-125.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.05.016
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Supercapacitors are a new type of green energy storage device with the advantages of fast charging and discharging and long service life. The electrode material is the core component of supercapacitors. The carbon from biomass is considered as a good choice for the preparation of activated carbon because of its wide variety, low price, environmental friendly, porous structure and rich in hetero-atoms, and it is the most popular electrode material for commercial applications. This paper reviewd the effects of pore structure and specific surface area on the performance of electrochemical energy storage of activated carbon, summarized the common pore structures of biomass activated carbon such as tubular, lamellar, honeycomb and network and their electrochemical properties, and analyzed the effects of different biomass components on the performance of activated carbon from three categories: plant-based, animal-based and microbial-based. Finally, the traditional methods of preparing activated carbon and the new preparation methods in recent years were briefly introduced. The problems and challenges of biomass activated carbon were pointed out. Some suggestions were provided to guide the selection of precursors for biomass activated carbon.

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