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Preparation of SO 4 2-/Fe 2O 3-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 Solid Superacid Catalyst for Producing Levulinic Acid from Hydrolysis of Sucrose
JIANG Hua-chang;ZENG Ling;YIN Bing-long;GAN Jun-jiang;LIU Bao-jian
   2010, 30 (6): 61-65.  
Abstract752)      PDF(pc) (946KB)(5715)       Save
SO 4 2-/Fe 2O 3-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 solid superacids of different proportions were prepared by co-deposition method and used for the reacion of catalytic hydrolysis of sucrose to produce levulinic acid. The results showed that calcination time and the dipping concentration of sulfuric acid affected the property of these catalysts. Calcination time and temperature affected surface area seriously. The shorter the calcination time and lower the calcination temperature, the larger was the specific surface area. The impregnation concentration by H 2SO 4 and impregnation time also impact the catalyst properties. The solid superacids were used for the catalytic hydrolysis of sucrose to produce levulinic acid. The improved activity was obtained under following conditions: calcination temperature 600℃, calcination time 4 h. The high yield of levulinic acid was obtained 33.05%.
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Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Alkylated Chitosan Derivatives under Basic Ionic Liquid Condition
PEI Li-jun, CAI Zhao-sheng, SHANG Shi-bin, SONG Zhan-qian
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2014, 34 (3): 44-50.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.03.008
Abstract824)      PDF(pc) (1627KB)(2149)       Save
Chitosan (CTS) was alkalized by [Bmim]OH basic ionic liquid in this study. Then the alkalized chitosan reacted with alkyl halides to prepare the alkylated chitosan with different substituents. The structures of alkylated products were characterized by IR and 1H NMR. The effects of reaction time, temperature and material ratio on the substitution degree ( D S) of alkyl chitosan were also investigated and then the optimal reaction condition was obtained. The separated ionic liquid could be reused,and no noticeable changes of the D S for alkylated chitosan were observed when the reacted ionic liquid was reused for 3 times. The antibacterial properties of the target products were tested by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Preliminary results indicated that those compounds had the antibacterial activity. In particular, ethyl chitosan(E-CTS), butyl chitosan(B-CTS), and dodecyl chitosan(D-CTS) exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibition concentration were 128,128 and 256 mg/L, respectively. Their antibacterial effects were better than commercially sold Ampicillin sodium while the C-CTS antibacterial effect was worse. The antibacterial activity of alkylated chitosan decreased with the increase of the D S and the length of carbon chain.
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Research Progress and Applications of Macromolecular Polysaccharide-based Hydrogels for Functional Materials
JIANG Jianxin, LIU Yantao, ZHOU Ziyuan, DUAN Jiufang, SUN Dafeng
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2017, 37 (2): 1-10.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.02.001
Abstract1398)      PDF(pc) (2331KB)(3123)       Save
Compared with the traditional polymer hydrogel materials, polysaccharide hydrogels are getting more attention of the people, because of its environmentally friendliness, biocompatibility, special functional and biodegradable advantages. The production methods of hydrogels from plant polysaccharides, marine polysaccharide, microbial polysaccharide and its blending polysaccharide were summarized, as well as the functional characteristics and characterization methods. And the applications of hydrogel materials in medicine and health care, food, cosmetics, agriculture, environmental protection and other fields were introduced. The application prospects of polysaccharide hydrogel in biosensor, bioreactor, artificial intelligence materials and antibacterial materials were discussed, and the main focus of future polysaccharide research were proposed, such as improving material performance and features, studying gel formation mechanism, and simulating function materials.
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国家自然科学基金(50776035);教育部重大项目培育资金(705048);长江学者和创新团队计划 (IRT0552);国家 "863"计划(2007AA05Z408);国家自然科学基金-广东自然科学基金联合基金重点项目(U0733001)
ZHANG Jing-qiang;LIN Lu;SUN Yong;MITCHELL G;LIU Shi-jie
   2008, 28 (6): 109-114.  
Abstract972)      PDF(pc) (1184KB)(2859)       Save
The enormous hydrogen bondings and crystal structures of natural cellulose strongly retard the hydrolysis of native cellulose into soluble sugars, which can be converted into biofuels or high value chemical products. In this paper, recent researches on cellulose structure & hydrogen bonding, as well as some promising methods and theories of decrystallization, and applicational examples were described.
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Effect of Hydrogen Bonding of Ammonium-based Deep Eutectic Solvents on Cellulose Dissolution
CHEN Zishu, ZHAO Zixuan, ZHANG Shaomeng, REN Hongwei
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2018, 38 (5): 93-99.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2018.05.013
Abstract845)      PDF(pc) (2702KB)(894)       Save
A series of ammonium-based ammonium salts and amides were used as raw materials to prepare deep eutectic solvents(DES), namely, tetramethylammonium chloride/caprolactam(TMACl/CPL), tetraethylammonium chloride/caprolactam(TEACl/CPL), tetrabutylammonium chloride/caprolactam(TBACl/CPL), tetrabutylammonium acetate/caprolactam(TBAAc/CPL),tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate/caprolactam(TBAHSO 4/CPL), and tetrabutylammonium bromide/caprolactam(TBABr/CPL). The formation process of hydrogen bonds of CO-H-C and C-N-H-C between ammonium salt and caprolactam were studied by FI-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. Then, DES was used to dissolve cellulose. The effects of alkyl chain length, anion, time, temperature, viscosity and the hydrogen-bond network structure of DES on the dissolution of cellulose were explored, respectively. It was found that butyl had higher ability to dissolve cellulose than that of ethyl and methyl. Ac - could afford more reactive sites than Br -, Cl -, Ac - and HSO - 4. TBAAc/CPL was a preferable solvent and the dissolubility of cellulose was 7.8% under 100℃ and 75 min. Moreover, the dissolution mechanism of hydrogen bond on cellulose was investigated. The results showed that the raw dense and ordered structure of cellulose were changed to coarse and disordered state,and the structure of -OH,-CH and C-O-C didn't change.The cellulose was directly dissolved in ammonium-based DES, and no other derivatives were generated. XRD analysis showed that the 2 θ of cellulose before and after regeneration changed from 15.36°, 16.68°, and 22.10° to 21.99°, and the cellulose crystal form was changed from cellulose I to type Ⅱ.
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Development Status and Prospect of Biomass Gasification Technology
Xueqin LI, Peng LIU, Youqing WU, Tingzhou LEI, Shiyong WU, Sheng HUANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 113-121.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.016
Abstract1131)   HTML571)    PDF(pc) (1994KB)(848)       Save

In order to promote the development of biomass gasification technology and the utilization of gasification products, the development and industrial status of biomass gasification technology, gasifier type and its development status at home and abroad were mainly introduced, and the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification technology were analyzed. At the same time, it is also found that China's biomass resources had great potential and biomass energy had the excellent characteristics of renewability, such as renewable, less pollution, large reserves, wide distribution, zero carbon emissions and so on. However, it was difficult to internationalize because of a series of problems such as imperfect of collection-storage-transportation system, shortage of capital chain and more by-products. It was further prospected that biomass gasification in China should not only take a basic research, but also consider the overall demand of biomass gasification technology and the competition with other technologies as the future development direction and important key point. This paper was expected to lay a solid foundation for the further development of biomass gasification technology and the high-value utilization of gasification products.

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Study on the Pyrolysis Products of Several Lignocellulosic Materials
XIAO Zhi-liang;ZUO Song-lin
   2012, 32 (2): 1-8.  
Abstract658)      PDF(pc) (1469KB)(1128)       Save
Five types of lignocellulosic materials, i.e., ginkgo wood, fir wood,wheat straw, rice straw, corn cob, which are representative of woody materials and grass ones, were routinely pyrolyzed in nitrogen atmosphere. During pyrolysis reaction, the gaseous products were in-line detected by gas chromatography. The condensed products were analyzed by GC-MS.The water content in pyrolytic liquid products were measured by Karl-Fischer method. The results showed that the yield of solid char is about 30% for both of the woody and grassy materials. The yield of the liquid products from the woody materials was 33%-42% lower than that from the grassy ones(45%-51%), while the yield of the gaseous products from the woody materials was 30%-39% higher than that from the latter(18%-24%). The organic substances in the pyrolytic liquid products were mainly furan-type compounds and phenolic ones. The total content of the furan compounds from grassy materials were 25%-33%, which is higher than that from woody materials. The total content of phenolic compounds from gassy materials is 24%-30%. CO 2 and CO are gaseous products mainly originated from the thermal decomposition of raw materials. CH 4 and H 2 were closely related to pyrolysis reaction of tar originated from raw materials and the structure formation of solid char.
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Recent Progress in Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass-based Oxygenates
ZHANG Ying, HAN Zheng, XU Lu-jiang, FU Yao
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2016, 36 (6): 107-118.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2016.06.017
Abstract1036)      PDF(pc) (1471KB)(883)       Save
In the preparation of the biofuel or biochemical process, reducing the oxygen content of the feedstock and improving hydrogen carbon ratio are very important. The hydrodeoxygenation is the key to this process. With the expect to provide a reference for finding a highly efficient, green, economic and sustainable catalytic system that can convert biomass into biofuel, this paper focused on the elementary reactions of hydrodeoxygenation and reviewed the development of hydrodeoxygenation reaction according to the differences of oxygen-contained compounds' structure and catalytic systems.
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A Review of Deep Eutectic Solvents for Lignin Isolation
Lei ZHONG,Chao WANG,Gaojin LYU,Xingxiang JI,Guihua YANG,Jiachuan CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 12-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.002
Abstract1857)   HTML1193765908)    PDF(pc) (1494KB)(1449)       Save

Lignin is the most abundant renewable aromatic polymer in nature, which complex structure and compact connection with cellulose and hemicellulose through covalent bond and hydrogen bond make it difficult to be separated efficiently. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) is a novel kind of green ionic liquid, which has been successfully applied to lignin isolation due to its unique physical and chemical properties. The research progress of dissolution and extraction of lignin by deep eutectic solvents (DES) is reviewed in detail. From the point of view of the mechanism of dissolving lignin by DES, the effects of different factors(composition, proportion, pH value, functional groups of DES, water content of system, raw material, reaction time, temperature, catalyst, co-solvent, and so on) on lignin removal were emphatically expounded. Based on the research progress of DES in lignin extraction, the research progress and futuer application of lignin extraction were summarized and prospected.

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Preparation and Properties of Rosin-based Non-isocyanate Polyurethane
Bowen ZHANG, Yuemin ZHOU, He LIU, Shiwei LIU, Shibin SHANG, Zhanqian SONG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.001
Abstract101)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (2696KB)(110)       Save

Acrylpimaric acid diglycidyl ether(AE) was synthesized from acrylpimaric acid(APA), a rosin derivative, and acrylpimaric acid cyclocarbonate(AC) was further prepared. Then the rosin-based non-isocyanate polyurethane(ACPP) film materials was prepared by the reaction of the cyclic carbonate groups of AC with the amino group in polyethylenimine(PEI) and the polyester polyamine(Priamine 1074). The structure and properties of ACPP materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), thermogravimetric(TG), dynamic thermomechanical analysis(DMA) and other techniques. The results showed that with the increase of AC content, the introduction of rigid structure of hydrogenated phenanthrene ring in the rosin structure increased, resulting in the enhancement of the mechanical properties of ACPP. The tensile strength of the material (ACPP1) could reach 15 MPa when the amino/cyclocarbonate group molar ratio value was 1. At the same time, the glass transition temperature(Tg) of ACPP material increased significantly, which were greater than 40 ℃. When the molar ratio of amino group to cyclocarbonate group was 0.8, the Tg of ACPP0.8 reached the maximum value of 49.4 ℃. The results of self-healing performance test showed that the scratch healing of ACPP1 material with scratch could be achieved after 1 h heating at the condition of 160 ℃ and 5 MPa, and the healing rate was up to 100%. In addition, after physical reprocessing and chemical recovery and reprocessing, the mechanical properties of ACPP1 materials could still be restored to 85% of the original strength, showing excellent recovery and reprocessing performance.

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STUDY ON OPTIMUM PROCESS FOR EXTRACTING CAPSAICIN IN PAPRIKA( CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) BY ORTHOGONAL TEST
GAO Yi;ZHOU Chun-shan;JIANG Xin-yu;CHEN Long-sheng;CHEN Yan
   2005, 25 (2): 111-114.  
Abstract618)      PDF(pc) (723KB)(929)       Save
The optimum process of extracting capsaicin,the bioactive component in paprika( Capsicum annuum L.) was studied.The optimum extraction process was optimized with orthogonal test.Experiments were made by using L 9(3 4) orthogonal design with extractive yield of capsaicin as the index,investigating the influence of ethanol concentration,temperature,extracting time and the ratio of solid to liquid.Optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows:temperature 70℃,time 0.5 h,70% EtOH as extracting solvent,stock ratio 1:10(mass:volume),extracting for three times.
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Preparation and in vitro and in vivo Stability of Oenothein B from Eucalyptus Leaves
CAO Su-fang, CHEN Yun-jiao, CHEN Hong-zhang, OUYANG Wen, YE Xi-guang, CAO Yong, ZHAO Li-chao
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2016, 36 (1): 112-118.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2016.01.016
Abstract981)      PDF(pc) (2231KB)(882)       Save
Oenothein B(OEB) has strong anti-oxidative and antineoplastic activities.It can be developed into functional health food, food antioxidant and other products.Few researches are done on its application because of a scarcity of nature resources and its low bioavailability.In this article, a method of large scale preparation of OEB from eucalyptus leaves was studied by extracting with ethanol, adsorbing through the macroporous resin, medium pressure column chromatography and preparative liquid phase.The structure of OEB was further identified.In addition, the solubility of OEB was analyzed in different polar solvents.Meanwhile, the loss ratio of OEB was measured by dealing with heating temperature, pH values and enzymes.Finally, the metabolic process of OEB was traced in mice to estimate the stability of OEB in vivo and in vitro comprehensively.The results showed that OEB could be purified by column chromatography and pre-HPLC with the purity of 94.85% and the yield of 2.50% in weight of dried eucalyptus.OEB was easily decomposed with maximum 98.85% by solvents, heating temperature, pH and enzymes with different types and concentration.OEB was disappeared clearly and new components appeared after affecting with plasma in vitro.It was also indicated that OEB was unstable in mice and easy to decompose.It could not be absorbed directly into the blood, and also could not arrive in the feces and urine in the form of prototype compounds.Therefore, OEB is unstable in vivo and in vitro.This result provides theoretical basis for elucidating the metabolic pathway in vivo and in vitro as well as for further study on the improvement of OEB stability.
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Research Progress in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins
Qian XU,Chen ZHANG,Jiawei WU,Jia OUYANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.001
Abstract2658)   HTML1967701126)    PDF(pc) (3662KB)(1455)       Save

Anthocyanin is a kind of flavonoid which mainly exists in plants. It has strong biological activities such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidation, and is widely used in the field of nutrition and health care. Most anthocyanins are extracted directly from plants by physical or chemical means, but the yield is low, and the extracted anthocyanins are mostly mixtures due to the restrictions of time, region and season. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins have attracted much attention by researchers worldwide in recent years. As the biosynthesis of anthocyanins can be controlled artificially and the purity of the obtained products is high, it has been widely studied. Anthocyanins cannot exist stably in the environment, and need to be modified by glycosylation, acylation and methylation to increase their stability. The modified anthocyanins can be synthesized by microorganisms and significant color changes can be seen in the medium. The biosynthesis and modification of anthocyanins were reviewed in this paper, and the preparation technology of anthocyanin synthesis from plants and microorganisms was briefly introduced, the factors affecting anthocyanin synthesis were analyzed, and finally the future research direction of anthocyanin was predicted.

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Preparation and Characterization of Enzyme/Magnetic-driven Pectin/Sodium Alginate Composite Microsphere
Lingling KANG, Guifang LI, Xianliang SONG, Jing HE, Jiandu LEI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 9-16.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.002
Abstract64)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (11244KB)(79)       Save

This study designed and constructed an enzyme/magnetic dual-driven pectin(PET)/sodium alginate(SA) composite microsphere robot drug delivery system. Specifically, through the dropwise method, calcium lactate was used as a crosslinking agent to simultaneously load Fe3[KG-*6]O4 magnetic nanoparticles(Mag), catalase(CAT)/glucose oxidase(GOD)/zinc phosphate hybrid particles, and a natural camptothecin derivative(irinotecan hydrochloride CPT-11) drug into PET/SA composite microspheres, by which fabricated the magnetically responsive PET/SA composite microspheres(CPT-11/CAT/GOD-Zn3(PO4)2@Mag/PET-SA). The effects of different compounding ratios of PET to SA and the addition of magnetic particles on the structure, morphology, particle size, and drug encapsulation efficiency of the composite microspheres were investigated. The drug release curves of the drug-loaded microsphere robots in simulated gastric fluid(SGF, pH value 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid(SIF, pH value 6.8) were determined by ultraviolet spectrometry method. The results showed that the prepared enzyme/magnetic dual-driven microsphere drug-loading robot had good sphericity, but the addition of magnetic particles caused the appearance of a lot of wrinkles and become rough on the surface of the composite microspheres, leading to a significant decrease in drug encapsulation rate. When the ratio of m(PET) to m(SA) was 1∶3, the average particle size of the composite microspheres before the addition of magnetic particles was 1.658 mm, with an encapsulation rate of 63.1%. After the addition of magnetic particles, the average particle size of the composite microspheres increased up to 1.885 mm, and the encapsulation rate decreased up to 47.7%. The release of irinotecan hydrochloride drug was relatively slow in SGF while it released rapidly in SIF. Vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) tests indicated that the composite microspheres exhibited superparamagnetism and high magnetization intensity, and could undergo self-driven in a glucose solution.

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Research Progress in Analytical Methods of Vegetable Tannins
ZHANG Liang-liang;WANG Yong-mei;XU Man;WU Dong-mei;CHEN Jia-hong
   2012, 32 (3): 107-116.  
Abstract943)      PDF(pc) (1584KB)(2329)       Save
This bioactivity capacity of vegetable tannins, including free radical scavenging activity and protein precipitation capacity are generally recognized to be largely dependent on their structure and particularly molecular weight (degree of polymerization). So the study on structure analysis of vegetable tannins has been paid much attention in recent years. This review deals with the main issues related to the analysis of vegetable tannins in the last 10 years. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) are useful tools to screen samples for the different types of tannins. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) are used to identify pure tannin compounds. More recently, MALDI-TOF MS techniques have been developed, which are capable of yielding molecular weights of crude tannin mixtures. MALDI-TOF MS has proved to be highly suitable for the analysis of highly polydisperse and heterogeneous proanthocyanidins.
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STUDIES ON CATALYTIC EFFECTS OF FAUJUSITE IN FINE ORGANIC SYNTHESIS——Kinetics Characteristics of α-Pinene Isomerization Catalyzed by DUSY
GUO Jian-ping;YIN Du-lin;Li Qian-he;Fu Zai-hui;DUAN Chun-sheng
   2000, 20 (2): 34-38.  
Abstract584)      PDF(pc) (858KB)(909)       Save
Kinetics characteristics of α-pinene isomerization catalyzed by dealuminated USY(DUSY) was studied.The effect of silica/alumina ratio of the catalyst and reaction conditions on conversion and product distributions were also investigated.The kinetics studies show that isomerization of α-pinene in tetrahydrofuran over DUSY-1 catalyst (silica/alumina ratio 7.41) obeys kinetics rule of the pseudo-first order reaction.The activation energy calculated from least square method is 144.3kJ/mol.
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Research Progress on Polymerization and Curing Technology of Urushiol and Its Application in Functional Polymers
Dongxu LI, Juanni ZHANG, Tingting ZHANG, Yan LI, Xingying XUE, Zhiwen QI
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 129-137.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.017
Abstract52)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (4644KB)(76)       Save

Urushiol was the common plant polyphenol in China. It was isolated and purified from the lacquer by lacquer tree secretion. The structure contained active groups such as benzene ring, ortho/meta bisphenol hydroxyl group and long(unsaturated) alkane side chain(C15-C20). In recent years, the application of urushiol in membrane functional material technology had made rapid progress. In particular, the preparation of urushiol functional polymers by chemical polymerization and curing technology had been widely used in membrane surface/interface engineering, adhesives, hemostatic agents, and other fields. It was one of the important ways to realize the resource utilization and quality improvement of raw lacquer. This article reviewed the recent domestic and foreign research on the polymerization and curing mechanism of urushiol, as well as heating curing, ultraviolet curing, laccase biomimetic catalysis, metal coordination chelation, organic blend cross-linking, sol-gel reaction, electrospinning and other urushiol curing polymerization technologies. The research progress and main problems of urushiol functional polymers in the application of functional materials such as anti-corrosion coatings, hydrophobic coatings, hemostatic and antibacterial coatings were summarized, which provided theoretical basis and development direction for the commercial application of urushiol functional materials.

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Preparation of Xylooligosaccharides by Ethanol Precipitation Separation from Autohydrolysis of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Residuce of Xylan
Zhina LIAN,Yan'e WANG,Jing LUO,Qiang YONG,Shiyuan YU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (2): 33-41.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.02.004
Abstract855)   HTML730137601)    PDF(pc) (690KB)(721)       Save

Enzymatic hydrolysis residue of xylan was autohydrolyzed, and the autohydrolysate was then fractionated by two-step ethanol precipitation. The obtained three kinds of xylan fractions with varied degree of polymerization (Dp) were evaluated through in vitro proliferation by Bifidobacterium adolescentis. The autohydrolysis was carried out at 180℃ for 40 min to obtain autohydrolysate mainly contained xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with Dp of 2-6. The content of XOS was 57.36% of the xylan in the autohydrolysate, and the yield of XOS was 26.54% of the xylan in the feedstock. Two-step ethanol precipitation could fractionate the xylan in the autohydrolysate into sample S1, S2 and S3, with the range of Dp of 24-122, 7-19 and 1-6, respectively. Low Dp of sample S3 contained mainly XOS which was 95.91% and exhibited significant prebiotic activity. After 36 h incubation, the cell concentration was 0.25 g/L, 4.72 times of the initial, with the sugar residue of 43.48%, and with the concentration of short-chain fatty acids of 1.96 g/L.

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Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of L-Carvone-derived Oxime Sulfonate Compounds
Yupei MENG, Wengui DUAN, Guishan LIN, Wenjing ZHANG, Kaiyue WU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 41-50.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.006
Abstract63)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (914KB)(85)       Save

23 novel L-carvone-derived oxime sulfonate compounds 3a-3w were synthesized through hydroxylamine hydrochloride oximation and o-sulfonylation reactions using L-carvone(1) as the starting material. The structures of the target compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR and HRMS. The antifungal activities of the target compounds against 8 tested plant pathogens were evaluated by agar dilution method. The results showed that the target compounds exhibited certain antifungal activities against the tested plant pathogens at the mass concentration of 50 mg/L. Among them, compounds 3b(R=o-FPh), 3c(R=m-FPh) and 3h(R=p-ClPh) had inhibition rates against Physalospora piricola of 76.7%, 75.9%, and 78.3%(all in B-class activity level), which were better than that of the positive control chlorothalonil. Compound 3h displayed certain broad-spectrum antifungal activity owing to its good inhibition rates of 78.4%, 78.3%, 82.2%, and 78.8%, against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Physalospora piricola, Bipolaris maydis, and Colleterichum orbicalare, respectively(all in B-class activity level). Compound 3b also displayed certain broad-spectrum antifungal activity owing to its good inhibition rates of 76.7%, 77.5%, and 78.6%, against P. piricola, B. maydis, and C. orbicalare, respectively(all in B-class activity level).

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Application of Aspen Plus in Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment for Ethanol Production: A Review
Fang WANG, Hongdan ZHANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 119-130.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.017
Abstract408)   HTML5931)    PDF(pc) (2999KB)(648)       Save

Pretreatment was a key step in sugar platform -based biomass refinery using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used methods such as dilute acid/alkali, steam explosion, liquid hot water, microwave, subcritical CO2, ionic liquids, deep-eutectic solvents, organosolv, milling/grinding, and biological, and the research progress of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were reviewed. Furthermore, the application of the co-production of ethanol and platform chemicals in the pretreatment of biomass feedstock at home and abroad based on Aspen Plus and techno-economic analysis were introduced. Finally, the drawbacks of Aspen Plus in biomass pretreatment for ethanol production were summarized and the further research directions were proposed.

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Establishment of Near Infrared Analysis Models of Eucalyptus-Acacia Mixed Pulpwood Materials Based on LASSO Algorithm
Ting WU,Long LIANG,Beiping ZHU,Yongjun DENG,Guigan FANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (5): 83-90.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.05.012
Abstract430)   HTML691)    PDF(pc) (690KB)(609)       Save

In order to improve the domestic pulp output and utilization rate, and alleviate the shortage of high-quality materials in the pulping and paper-making industry, a rapid analysis research was conducted on the specific material model of pulp making-Eucalyptus-Acacia mixed with pulpwood in southern China. The near-infrared spectra of 175 Eucalyptus-Acacia mixed samples and 45 single-species samples were collected. The mixing degree and chemical composition content of all samples were analyzed. The original spectra were preprocessed by the combined pretreatment methods of smoothing, vector normalization(V-Norm), multiple scattering correction(MSC), first derivative(1st Der) and second derivative(2nd Der). Combined with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator(LASSO) algorithm, the mixing degree, holocellulose, Klason lignin, pentosan, benzene-alcohol extractives and 1% NaOH extractives content models were built. The optimal adjustment parameters determined during the modeling process were 13.62, 18.30, 6.39, 9.64, 7.49, and 12.07. The RMSEP values of the six models were 1.93%, 0.61%, 0.51%, 0.80%, 0.28%, and 0.41%, respectively. The absolute deviation ranges were -3.19%-3.24%, -0.96%-1.01%, -0.89%-0.84%, -1.37%-1.46%, -0.43%-0.39%, -0.58%-0.60%. The models have good adaptability and could meet the needs of the pulping and paper-making industry. It also confirmed the feasibility of the LASSO algorithm for the analysis of mixed pulpwood materials.

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Antiphlogistic Constituents from Gaultheria yunnanensis Seeds
XIE Wei, FAN Ding-hui, YIN Li, PAN Gui-sheng, ZHONG Tong, LI Jun
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2015, 35 (2): 142-146.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.02.022
Abstract973)      PDF(pc) (588KB)(803)       Save
The extract parts of Gaultheria yunnanensis seeds, which were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water from 75% ethanol extract, were investigated through pharmacological experiments. The ethyl acetate extract was the antiphlogistic part. Through the use of chromatographic technology, eight compounds were isolated from the antiphlogistic part. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses, such as NMR, IR and MS, etc.. They were physcion ( 1), 6-ethyl-5-hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone ( 2), myricetin ( 3), 1,4-dihydroxybenzene ( 4), vanillic acid ( 5), β-daucosterol ( 6), β-sitosterol ( 7) and succinic acid ( 8). All compounds were isolated from the plant seeds for the first time.
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Preparation Process Optimization and Flame Retardant Performance of Laccase Pretreated Flame-retardant Fiberboard
Haitong SUN, Guoqing NIU, Lun GAO
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 81-88.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.011
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In order to improve the flame-retardant effect of flame retardants in fiberboard, laccase was used to pretreat poplar fiber and then BL-environmental friendly flame retardant was impregnated with poplar fiber to prepare laccase treated flame-retardant fiberboard. Taking the flame retardants loading, oxygen index and smoke density of fiberboard as indexes, the orthogonal experimental design was used to determine the optimal impregnation process. The impregnation effect of poplar fibers was analyzed by oxygen index, smoke density, thermogravimetric(TG) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR). The results showed that the prepared fiberboard had the best flame-retardant effect under the conditions of laccase treatment temperature of 50 ℃, enzyme treatment time of 60 min, enzyme dosage of 35 U/g, pH value of 4.8, flame retardant dosage of 50%, flame retardant impregnation time of 80 min and flame retardant temperature of 35 ℃. Under these conditions, the flame retardant loading was 20.3%, the oxygen index was 41.5%, the smoke density was 10.9%, the density was 0.774 g/cm3, the static flexural strength was 30.3 MPa, the elastic modulus was 3 507 MPa, the internal bonding strength was 0.61 MPa, and the thickness expansion rate of water absorbing was 17.4%. Compared with ordinary fiberboard, BL-environmental flame retardant treatment of fiberboard could improve its oxygen index and flame retardant content. Compared with the ordinary fiberboard and the flame-retardant fiberboard prepared by BL-environmentally friendly flame retardant treatment only, the temperature required for laccase-treated flame retardant fiberboard to produce the same weight loss was higher, and the combustion reaction was not easy to be occured in the drying and carbonization stages. The oxygen-containing functional groups and hydroxyl groups of laccase-treated flame-retardant fiberboard decreased significantly, and the flame retardancy of the fiberboard was improved.

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Preparation and Application of Soybean Protein-Polyacrylamide/Composite Salt Anti-freezing Gel Electrolytes
Fusheng YANG, Yuxi LI, Dingkun WANG, Xun ZHAN, Jingya NAN, Chunpeng WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 51-57.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.007
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A soy protein-polyacrylamide composite salt(SPI-PAAm/ZnCl2-LiCl) anti-freezing gel electrolyte with antifreeze performance was prepared using soybean protein(SPI), acrylamide(AAm), ZnCl2 and LiCl as raw materials, and it was applied to hybrid capacitors for the investigation of the electrochemical performance of hybrid capacitor at low temperature. The results of research showed that the addition of ZnCl2 and LiCl broke the hydrogen bonds among the water molecules in the gel electrolyte, and endowed the gel electrolyte with excellent low temperature ionic conductivity and good low temperature mechanical properties. When the molar ratio of ZnCl2 to LiCl was 5∶[KG-*9]12, the performance of antifreeze gel electrolyte was the best. At -70 ℃, the anti-freezing gel electrolyte could maintain structural integrity after 100 tensile cycles under 100% strain, the stress retention rate was more than 65%, the plastic deformation rate was less than 25% and the energy loss coefficient was less than 0.35. The hybrid capacitor based on this anti-freezing gel electrolyte exhibited good electrochemical performance at low temperature, and could work normally at -80 ℃. At low temperature, the energy density was concentrated in the range of 50-200 Wh/kg, and the power density was concentrated in the range of 1 000-30 000 W/kg. Even at -70 ℃, the power density of the hybrid capacitor was nearly 1 000 W/kg and the energy density was more than 10 Wh/kg. Meanwhile, the capacitance retention rate of the hybrid capacitor was more than 94% after 5 000 cyclic charge and discharge at -70 ℃, indicating the excellent cycling performance.

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Research Progress on the Safety of Activated Carbon in Gas Phase Adsorption Process
Bin LIU, Songlin ZUO, Jinlong LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 138-148.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.018
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Volatile organic compounds(VOCs) were the major reason for air pollution in China, mainly from industrial emissions, containing hydrocarbon, aldehydes, alcohols, ethers and ketones, etc. The granular activated carbon is often applied in the fixed bed. When the activated carbon adsorbs the VOCs, the adsorption heat is released. VOCs adsorption by activated carbon had became the main environmental protection technology at present. However, in the process of VOCs adsorption by activated carbon, the generation of adsorption heat could easily lead to the increase of activated carbon bed temperature, resulting in the fire of activated carbon bed that was a major safety hazard. Therefore, this paper reviewed and analyzed the main factors affecting the ignition point of activated carbon, such as the raw materials, preparation methods and post-treatment processes of activated carbon, from the aspects of the structure and properties of activated carbon, adsorption operation methods and conditions, and VOCs components. The effects of adsorption process such as air humidity, oxygen content, gas flow rate, activated carbon bed depth, and adsorption conditions on the temperature rise of activated carbon bed provided a reference for systematically mastering and evaluating the application safety of activated carbon in gas phase adsorption process. Finally, the main technical problems in this field were pointed out.

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Recent Progress in Preparation and Application of Bio-based Hydrogels
Shuo WANG, Yonggui WANG, Zefang XIAO, Yanjun XIE
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 122-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.017
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Firstly, this review introduced the research background and application status of bio-based hydrogels. According to the different crosslinking mechanisms, physical and chemical hydrogels were classified and described. Then, the hydrogels prepared from cellulose, chitosan, protein and other bio-based materials were summarized based on the classification of the used biomass, including the solvents system of cellulose, the preparation of cellulose-based hydrogels and modification of cellulose derivatization. Also, the feedstock sources and modification methods of chitosan-based hydrogels, as well as cross-linking mechanisms such as electrostatic interaction and imine bond formed by amine groups on their molecular chains were assembled. Protein-based hydrogels with good biocompatibility and bioactivity, formed by β-folded self-assembly of polypeptide chains were depicted as well in this review. Similarly, bio-based hydrogels prepared by using physical or chemical crosslinking of hydrophilic natural polymers such as starch, sodium alginate and carrageenan, were introduced respectively. At the same time, the main applications of functionalized bio-based hydrogels in the biomedical fields were described in detail, including drug sustained release, targeted delivery, cell media, tissue repair scaffolds, wound dressings, etc. In addition, the application and research progress of bio-based hydrogels as adsorbent materials in environmental field were reviewed, and their applications in packaging, sensing, photoelectric catalysis and other fields were also highlighted. Finally, the development opportunities and challenges of bio-based hydrogels were summarized, and the future research directions were prospected.

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Research Progress on Separation of Active Components from Forest Sources by Targeted Molecular Imprinting Materials
Mujie LYU, Litao WANG, Jiandong WANG, Jinsong CAO, Haojie JIN, Yujie FU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 107-118.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.016
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China was rich in forest resources, and it was an important direction and approach of the development of forestry industry for exploiting the active components of forest resources which were beneficial to human health. With the rapid development of forestry bio-agent industry based on the active components as important material basis in China, targeted molecular imprinting materials have important industrial application value in the accurate separation and high-value processing of forest active components. This article introduced the principle and classification of targeted molecular imprinting technology, as well as the carrier types of several new-style targeted molecularly imprinted adsorption materials in recent years, mainly include graphene, silica, carbon dots and bio-based carriers. It focused on the application status in the separation of flavonoids, polyphenols, alkaloids, organic acids and other forest source active ingredients by targeted molecularly imprinted adsorption materials. Finally, the development of targeted molecular imprinting materials for the separation of active components from forest sources was summarized and prospected, the limitation of targeted molecular imprinting materials and the development trend of targeted molecular imprinting materials in the separation of active components from forest sources were also analyzed.

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Analysis of Aerobic Biological Inhibition Characteristics and Degradation Law of Eucalyptus Chemical Mechanical Pulp Wastewater
Laibao DING, Qingwen TIAN, Ran YANG, Jinwei ZHU, Qi GUO, Guigan FANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 33-40.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.005
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In this paper, the composition and content of organic matter in the effluent of anaerobic treatment and aerobic treatment of eucalyptus chemical mechanical pulp wastewater were analyzed by GC-MS method. The analysis of number of carbon atoms in the wastewater before and after aerobic treatment was counted, and the main bio-refractory components and degradation rules in the wastewater were analyzed. The results showed that the main residual organic pollutants after anaerobic and aerobic treatment were linalool (C10, 21.21%), methyl p-tert-butyl phenylacetate (C13, 21.39%), dihydromyrcenol (C10, 8.90%), lilial (C14, 6.16%) and citronellol (C10, 4.76%), etc, mainly containing benzene ring organic matter and bacteriostatic components, with biological refractory degradation and bacteriostatic properties. The macroscopic performance was that the removal rate of biological treatment was low. Before and after aerobic treatment, the mass fraction of alcohols in wastewater increased from 19.32% to 51.71%, the mass fraction of aldehydes increased from 3.68% to 13.35%, the mass fraction of esters decreased from 29.75% to 28.32%, and the mass fraction of benzene-containing organics increased from 32.70% to 61.06%, indicating that other organics were degraded more greatly than benzene-containing organics. It was recommended to improve the biological treatment effect by detoxification pretreatment and bioaugmentation to improve microbial activity, reduce the difficulty of subsequent deep treatment, reduce the cost of comprehensive treatment, and achieve low-cost discharge.

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Research on the Performance of Furfural Residue Enforced Crude Glycerol-based Polyurethane Foam
Kai FU, Zhenli YAN, Mengyu LI, Wei CHEN, Linda ZHANG, Chun CHANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2024, 44 (1): 65-73.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2024.01.009
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The biobased polyol(CG-polyol) was synthesized via one-pot method from crude glycerol(GC), a byproduct of biodiesel production, and the furfural residues(FR) was used as the reinforcing filler, which were blended for the preparation of a type of furfural residues-reinforced biobased polyurethane(PU/FR) foam composite material. The effects of FR size(0.25 mm, 0.09 mm samples FR60 and FR180) and addition amount on the PU/FR foam properties were investigated by characterizing the structure and morphology, thermal stability, foaming time, density and compressive strength of PU/FR foam. The results demonstrated that the CG-polyol synthesized by thermal conversion method had an acid number of 1.9 mg/g, a hydroxyl number of 406 mg/g, and a viscosity of 1 092 mPa·s, enabling it for preparing PU foam. The addition of FR prolonged the foaming time, and the maximum rise time and non-stick time increased from 29 and 31 s to 37 and 39 s, respectively. The cell structure of the foam became more complete, the size of the cell was reduced, and the breakage phenomenon was significantly reduced. When the amount of FR added was ≤5%, the density and compressive strength of the foam could be effectively improved. When the addition amount was the same, FR180 showed the most significant improvement in foam properties. Incorporating 5% FR180 into the preparation of PU/FR180-5 foam composite material resulted in a maximum compressive strength of 0.153 3 MPa, representing a 28.1% increase compared to the foam without FR. At this point, the density was 0.051 0 g/cm3 and the thermal conductivity was 0.032 8 W/(m·K). The overall performance of the composite material was better. Moreover, the addition of FR could moderately enhance the thermal stability of the PU foam material. Compared to the foam without FR, the maximum pyrolysis rate temperature(Tmax) of the PU/FR180-5 foam increased from 453 ℃ to 463 ℃.

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Preparation and Properties of Ultraviolet-curing Modified Rosin Methacrylate
FENG Xiaolong, LI Xiaotong, HUANG Lingge, GUO Kai
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2018, 38 (5): 45-52.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2018.05.007
Abstract685)      PDF(pc) (1053KB)(746)       Save
Maleopimaric anhydride(MPA) was firstly synthesized by Diels-Alder addition reaction of resin acid and maleic anhydride, then the MPA reacted with hexamethylene diamine to prepare maleopimaramide acid(MPAA), finally, modified rosin methacrylate(MRMA) was synthesized via the reaction between maleopimaramide acid and glycidyl methacrylate. The chemical structure of intermediates and goal product were characterized by FT-IR and 1HNMR. The ultraviolet(UV)-curing properties of MRMA film were investigated. The results showed that MRMA was solvable in usual active acrylic esters. The results of DSC and TG showed that the glass transition temperature( T g) of the UV-curing coating was 124.3℃ and the peak value in DTG was 418.4℃. The hardness and water-absorption of UV-curing film were 2H and below 5%, respectively. The adhesive force of UV-curing coating on polypropylene film was grade 0. The UV-curing film showed good resistances to acid, alkali, and water. All these indicated that MRMA would have a good prospect of applications for UV-curing coating, printing ink, and adhesive. The effects of the type and dosage of active diluent(AD) on UV-curing coating were also studied. The results showed that UV-curing MRMA coating with butyl acrylate(BA) as AD had good comprehensive performance. The adhesive force, tensile strength, glass transition temperature, and hardness of UV-curing MRMA/BA coating increased with the increase of MRMA content, while the elongation at break increased first and then decreased.
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