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Preparation of SO 4 2-/Fe 2O 3-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 Solid Superacid Catalyst for Producing Levulinic Acid from Hydrolysis of Sucrose
JIANG Hua-chang;ZENG Ling;YIN Bing-long;GAN Jun-jiang;LIU Bao-jian
   2010, 30 (6): 61-65.  
Abstract765)      PDF(pc) (946KB)(6639)       Save
SO 4 2-/Fe 2O 3-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 solid superacids of different proportions were prepared by co-deposition method and used for the reacion of catalytic hydrolysis of sucrose to produce levulinic acid. The results showed that calcination time and the dipping concentration of sulfuric acid affected the property of these catalysts. Calcination time and temperature affected surface area seriously. The shorter the calcination time and lower the calcination temperature, the larger was the specific surface area. The impregnation concentration by H 2SO 4 and impregnation time also impact the catalyst properties. The solid superacids were used for the catalytic hydrolysis of sucrose to produce levulinic acid. The improved activity was obtained under following conditions: calcination temperature 600℃, calcination time 4 h. The high yield of levulinic acid was obtained 33.05%.
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Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Alkylated Chitosan Derivatives under Basic Ionic Liquid Condition
PEI Li-jun, CAI Zhao-sheng, SHANG Shi-bin, SONG Zhan-qian
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2014, 34 (3): 44-50.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.03.008
Abstract834)      PDF(pc) (1627KB)(2435)       Save
Chitosan (CTS) was alkalized by [Bmim]OH basic ionic liquid in this study. Then the alkalized chitosan reacted with alkyl halides to prepare the alkylated chitosan with different substituents. The structures of alkylated products were characterized by IR and 1H NMR. The effects of reaction time, temperature and material ratio on the substitution degree ( D S) of alkyl chitosan were also investigated and then the optimal reaction condition was obtained. The separated ionic liquid could be reused,and no noticeable changes of the D S for alkylated chitosan were observed when the reacted ionic liquid was reused for 3 times. The antibacterial properties of the target products were tested by the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Preliminary results indicated that those compounds had the antibacterial activity. In particular, ethyl chitosan(E-CTS), butyl chitosan(B-CTS), and dodecyl chitosan(D-CTS) exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibition concentration were 128,128 and 256 mg/L, respectively. Their antibacterial effects were better than commercially sold Ampicillin sodium while the C-CTS antibacterial effect was worse. The antibacterial activity of alkylated chitosan decreased with the increase of the D S and the length of carbon chain.
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Hydrolysis Kinetics of Microcrystalline Cellulose Catalyzed by Fe 3+ and Dilute Hydrochloric Acid
REN Ling-bing;CAO Qing;XIE Xiao-ling
   2012, 32 (4): 117-122.  
Abstract787)      PDF(pc) (1118KB)(1995)       Save
The microcrystalline cellulose was hydrolyzed in the presence of 1g/L FeCl 3 and 2% hydrochloric and the hydrolysis kinetics was investigated in this study. According to the principle of minimum of residue error S between actual yields of glucose and calculated value from the established function, the objective function is selected. The results indicated that the activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction for microcrystalline cellulose and glucose can be significantly reduced due to the presence of H + and Fe 3+. For the hydrolysis reaction of microcrystalline cellulose and glucose, the activation energy is 81.70kJ/mol and 43.85kJ/mol, respectively. The hydrolysis constant rate of microcrystalline cellulose is 0.0414, 0.0732 and 0.1153h -1 at the temperature of 130, 140 and 150℃, respectively. For glucose, it is 0.2053, 0.2424 and 0.3565 h -1 at the corresponding temperatures.
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Research Progress in Analytical Methods of Vegetable Tannins
ZHANG Liang-liang;WANG Yong-mei;XU Man;WU Dong-mei;CHEN Jia-hong
   2012, 32 (3): 107-116.  
Abstract963)      PDF(pc) (1584KB)(2388)       Save
This bioactivity capacity of vegetable tannins, including free radical scavenging activity and protein precipitation capacity are generally recognized to be largely dependent on their structure and particularly molecular weight (degree of polymerization). So the study on structure analysis of vegetable tannins has been paid much attention in recent years. This review deals with the main issues related to the analysis of vegetable tannins in the last 10 years. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) are useful tools to screen samples for the different types of tannins. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) are used to identify pure tannin compounds. More recently, MALDI-TOF MS techniques have been developed, which are capable of yielding molecular weights of crude tannin mixtures. MALDI-TOF MS has proved to be highly suitable for the analysis of highly polydisperse and heterogeneous proanthocyanidins.
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Development Status and Prospect of Biomass Gasification Technology
Xueqin LI, Peng LIU, Youqing WU, Tingzhou LEI, Shiyong WU, Sheng HUANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 113-121.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.016
Abstract1163)   HTML572)    PDF(pc) (1994KB)(887)       Save

In order to promote the development of biomass gasification technology and the utilization of gasification products, the development and industrial status of biomass gasification technology, gasifier type and its development status at home and abroad were mainly introduced, and the advantages and disadvantages of biomass gasification technology were analyzed. At the same time, it is also found that China's biomass resources had great potential and biomass energy had the excellent characteristics of renewability, such as renewable, less pollution, large reserves, wide distribution, zero carbon emissions and so on. However, it was difficult to internationalize because of a series of problems such as imperfect of collection-storage-transportation system, shortage of capital chain and more by-products. It was further prospected that biomass gasification in China should not only take a basic research, but also consider the overall demand of biomass gasification technology and the competition with other technologies as the future development direction and important key point. This paper was expected to lay a solid foundation for the further development of biomass gasification technology and the high-value utilization of gasification products.

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Research Progress on Modification and Application of Cellulose Acetate
Huimin ZHOU,Jie LU,Yi CHENG,Yanna LYU,Haisong WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (4): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.04.001
Abstract1960)   HTML1144558571)    PDF(pc) (6071KB)(1604)       Save

The hydrophilic, ductile, thermoplastic and biodegradable properties of cellulose acetate (CA) were introduced, and the basic structure and market application of three kinds of cellulose acetate were summarized.It was pointed out that CA still had some disadvantages such as poor thermal stability at high temperature, low mechanical strength and easily being contaminated. The impacts of the physical modification and chemical modification on the properties of CA were also reassessed.It could conclude that the chemical reaction with polymer could change the structure or properties of CA.The fouling resistance, thermoplastic, selective and reuse of the CA were improved greatly, while the physical modification could improve the porosity and thermal stability of CA membrane, and the membrane mechanical strength, metal ion exclusion rate and the water flux were improved. The applications of CA in seawater desalination, adsorption of toxic substances in flue gas, preparation of biomedical membrane, drug delivery, tissue repair and regeneration, biosensor, outdoor protection and air purification were also summarized, and the market prospect and development trend of CA were prospected.

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Evaluation of Chromogenic Reaction Ability of Hydrochloric Acid (Sulfuric Acid)-vanillin by the Colorimetry for Determining Tea Catechins Aggregates
SHAN Hong-li;QING Yu;DU Xiao;LIU Dong-na
   2012, 32 (3): 71-76.  
Abstract798)      PDF(pc) (1053KB)(1524)       Save
Chromogenic reaction level of catechins from the green tea and the black tea with hydrochloric acid(sulfuric acid-vanillin)-vanillin was determined in this paper. By determining and comparing the reaction coefficient, accuracy and precision, the color reaction ability of catechins reacted with acid vanillin was evaluated. The results showed that the reaction system was sensitive to catechins with a high linear correlation( R HA 2=0.997 6±0.001 4, R SA 2=0.997 8±0.001 8). It was also seen that the chromogenic reaction coefficients from both systems were less than the Roberts coefficient (145.68) obtained from the empirical formula for calculating catechins aggregates. The recoveries from both system were more than 94.22% and all the variation coefficient of precision were less than 0.08%. This showed that both systems could determinate tea catechins aggregates. The chromogenic capability of tea catechins from different sources with acid-Vanillin was very different from each other ( F=37.434> F 0.01(1,5)=6.61). This results showed that two kinds of reaction systems could objectively reflect tea catechins aggregates. However, both recoveries and variation coefficient from the empirical formula were instable and the total catechins aggregates was higher than the reality.
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Research Progress in Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins
Qian XU,Chen ZHANG,Jiawei WU,Jia OUYANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.001
Abstract2687)   HTML1967701128)    PDF(pc) (3662KB)(1524)       Save

Anthocyanin is a kind of flavonoid which mainly exists in plants. It has strong biological activities such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidation, and is widely used in the field of nutrition and health care. Most anthocyanins are extracted directly from plants by physical or chemical means, but the yield is low, and the extracted anthocyanins are mostly mixtures due to the restrictions of time, region and season. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins have attracted much attention by researchers worldwide in recent years. As the biosynthesis of anthocyanins can be controlled artificially and the purity of the obtained products is high, it has been widely studied. Anthocyanins cannot exist stably in the environment, and need to be modified by glycosylation, acylation and methylation to increase their stability. The modified anthocyanins can be synthesized by microorganisms and significant color changes can be seen in the medium. The biosynthesis and modification of anthocyanins were reviewed in this paper, and the preparation technology of anthocyanin synthesis from plants and microorganisms was briefly introduced, the factors affecting anthocyanin synthesis were analyzed, and finally the future research direction of anthocyanin was predicted.

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Research Progress and Applications of Macromolecular Polysaccharide-based Hydrogels for Functional Materials
JIANG Jianxin, LIU Yantao, ZHOU Ziyuan, DUAN Jiufang, SUN Dafeng
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2017, 37 (2): 1-10.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.02.001
Abstract1416)      PDF(pc) (2331KB)(3217)       Save
Compared with the traditional polymer hydrogel materials, polysaccharide hydrogels are getting more attention of the people, because of its environmentally friendliness, biocompatibility, special functional and biodegradable advantages. The production methods of hydrogels from plant polysaccharides, marine polysaccharide, microbial polysaccharide and its blending polysaccharide were summarized, as well as the functional characteristics and characterization methods. And the applications of hydrogel materials in medicine and health care, food, cosmetics, agriculture, environmental protection and other fields were introduced. The application prospects of polysaccharide hydrogel in biosensor, bioreactor, artificial intelligence materials and antibacterial materials were discussed, and the main focus of future polysaccharide research were proposed, such as improving material performance and features, studying gel formation mechanism, and simulating function materials.
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Simultanous Determination of Quercetin and Kaempferol in Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden et Betehe) Chee 1 by HPLC
LIN Xiao;DONG Xiao-min;CHEN Ming-sheng;HUANG Yan;LIU Bu-ming;
   2012, 32 (4): 113-116.  
Abstract862)      PDF(pc) (1273KB)(1173)       Save
A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of quercetin and kaempferol in Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden et Betehe) Chee 1.The sample was extractd by HCl-MeOH solution (volume ratio 5:100) in water bath, then separated by a C 18 column with CH 3OH-C 2H 3N-0.4% phosphoric acid solution (volume ratio 21:21:58) as the mobile phase solution under 370 nm wavelength. The HPLC experiment was performed at room temperature with flow rate 1.0mL/min. Quercetin and kaempferol contents in M.alternifolia from different area were determined. The result showed that quercetin and kaempferol content in Nanxiao town of Yongning was the highest and that in Yongning was the lowest.
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Thermal Stability of Gallic Acid
GUO Man-man;XIAO Zhuo-bing;PENG Mi-jun;YU Hua-zhong;GUO Rui-ke
   2012, 32 (4): 58-62.  
Abstract1966)      PDF(pc) (1074KB)(1796)       Save
Thermal decomposing curves of gallic acid in different heating speeds were obtained in the nitrogen atmosphere by TG-DTG techniques. Two analysis methods of Achar and Coats-Redfern were used to speculate the probable mechanism of thermal decomposing reaction and the kinetic parameters. The shelf life of gallic acid at room temperature was calculated by the kinetic parameters of the first stage. With the increasing of the heating rate, thermal decomposing tempreture of gallic acid rose. The most probable kinetic mechanisms of the three-stage thermal decomposition were all chemical reactions, and the corresponding mechanisms followed on reaction order. In accordance with the data of TG and Gaussian, one molecule of gallic acid lost 0.5 atom O at the fisrt-stage, and lost another 0.5 atom O and a molecule CO 2 at the second stage. The shelf life of gallic acid at room temperature was about 1.5-2 years.
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Research Progress in Preparation and Application of Lignin-based Porous Carbon Materials
Xinglong HOU, Wei XU, Junli LIU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (1): 131-138.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.01.017
Abstract615)   HTML1603273954)    PDF(pc) (1793KB)(869)       Save

Lignin is an amorphous, highly cross-linked polyphenol aromatic polymer with a wide range of sources and rich carbon content, and is suitable for the preparation of porous carbon materials. Using lignin to prepare porous carbon is an important way to solve the problem that lignin is difficult to be used efficiently. It can solve environmental pollution and realize resource utilization. This article mainly introduced the research status of the preparation of microporous activated carbon with lignin as carbon precursor by physical and chemical activation method and the preparation of mesoporous carbon materials by template method in recent years. The pore structure and morphology of porous carbon materials prepared by different methods were compared and analyzed, as well as their application progress in adsorption, catalysis and electrochemistry.

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Research Progress in Wood Adhesives
Yufeng MA,Xuan'ang GONG,Chunpeng WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (2): 1-15.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.02.001
Abstract1434)   HTML1277290968)    PDF(pc) (1668KB)(1462)       Save

The consumption of wood adhesive in China is huge. However, the main wood adhesive based on formaldehyde is still prevalent. In recent years, environment friendly adhesives such as non-formaldehyde adhesives and biomass adhesives have developed rapidly. Herein, the recent research and application of wood adhesives including urea-formaldehyde resin adhesives, phenolic resin adhesives, melamine-formaldehyde resin adhesives, protein adhesives, lignin adhesives, starch adhesives, tannins adhesives, isocyanate adhesive, emulsion adhesives and pyrolysis biological oil adhesives were reviewed. The development trend and the research direction of wood adhesives were also prospected.

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Progress on Preparation and Application of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
Si LU,Qiong WANG,Xun LI,Wei QI,Zhongming WANG,Zhenhong YUAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2019, 39 (1): 13-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2019.01.002
Abstract2545)   HTML3049425)    PDF(pc) (786KB)(1581)       Save

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is one of the most important biomass-based platform molecules and widely used in the preparation of multifunctional compounds such as fine chemicals, key pharmaceutical intermediates, functional polyesters, solvents and liquid fuels. At present, the preparation of HMF is a hot spot in the field of biomass research, and the raw materials and methods for preparing HMF have been continuously expanded. This paper reviews the main preparation methods and research progress of HMF. Catalysis systems for HMF preparation is systematically described, including the types of the catalysts (mineral acids, ionic liquids, metal chlorides, solid acids and others) used in the catalytic process and the solvent systems. Then, the preparation paths and applications of important derivatives from HMF are summarized. Finally, suggestions for future research on HMF are provided based on the understanding of problems existing in the current research.

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A Review of Deep Eutectic Solvents for Lignin Isolation
Lei ZHONG,Chao WANG,Gaojin LYU,Xingxiang JI,Guihua YANG,Jiachuan CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (3): 12-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.03.002
Abstract1883)   HTML1193765908)    PDF(pc) (1494KB)(1503)       Save

Lignin is the most abundant renewable aromatic polymer in nature, which complex structure and compact connection with cellulose and hemicellulose through covalent bond and hydrogen bond make it difficult to be separated efficiently. Deep eutectic solvents (DES) is a novel kind of green ionic liquid, which has been successfully applied to lignin isolation due to its unique physical and chemical properties. The research progress of dissolution and extraction of lignin by deep eutectic solvents (DES) is reviewed in detail. From the point of view of the mechanism of dissolving lignin by DES, the effects of different factors(composition, proportion, pH value, functional groups of DES, water content of system, raw material, reaction time, temperature, catalyst, co-solvent, and so on) on lignin removal were emphatically expounded. Based on the research progress of DES in lignin extraction, the research progress and futuer application of lignin extraction were summarized and prospected.

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Recovery and Reuse of Tannin from Tannin-germanium Slag
XU Hao;QIN Qing;QIAN Xing;ZHANG Zong-he;HUANG Jia-ling;CHEN Wen-wen;TAO Lin
   2012, 32 (5): 93-96.  
Abstract781)      PDF(pc) (1097KB)(1473)       Save
The disposing of the tannin-germanium slag, which was obtained during tannin-germanium precipitation process, was studied. The separation of tannin and germanium can be achieved by successively slurrying the tannin-germanium slag, complexation with oxalic acid and adjusting the pH value of the suspension to 8-9 with 10 % aqueous sodium hydroxide. The germanium salt is removed by centrifugal separation, and the aqueous tannin solution can be reused to extract germanium. The result shows that recovery rate of tannin can reach 50 %. Using 28 times of tannin as much as germanium, the recovery rate of germanium can be 98 %.
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Application of Aspen Plus in Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment for Ethanol Production: A Review
Fang WANG, Hongdan ZHANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (4): 119-130.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.04.017
Abstract440)   HTML5932)    PDF(pc) (2999KB)(728)       Save

Pretreatment was a key step in sugar platform -based biomass refinery using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used methods such as dilute acid/alkali, steam explosion, liquid hot water, microwave, subcritical CO2, ionic liquids, deep-eutectic solvents, organosolv, milling/grinding, and biological, and the research progress of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation were reviewed. Furthermore, the application of the co-production of ethanol and platform chemicals in the pretreatment of biomass feedstock at home and abroad based on Aspen Plus and techno-economic analysis were introduced. Finally, the drawbacks of Aspen Plus in biomass pretreatment for ethanol production were summarized and the further research directions were proposed.

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Preparation and Apllication of Carbon Foam
ZHAO Xin;LI Wei;LIU Shou-xin;LI Bin
   2012, 32 (3): 117-125.  
Abstract1340)      PDF(pc) (2668KB)(2748)       Save
Carbon foam, a new type of sponge-like carbon materials, has attracted considerable interest due to its special properties such as low density, high temperature tolerance and high mechanical strength. In this paper, the raw and preparation method of carbon foam was summarized. Influence of experiment factors on the structure and application performance of carbon foam was systematically interpreted. The future development of carbon foams is proposed.
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Extraction of Orange Peel Oil by SCF-CO 2 and Analysis of Its Constituents
LUO Jin-yue;WANG Ai;QIAN Yong
   2012, 32 (2): 149-152.  
Abstract803)      PDF(pc) (1018KB)(1166)       Save
Orange peel oil was extracted by supercritical fluid-CO 2 (SCF-CO 2) and its constituents were analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of extraction time, pressure, temperature, CO 2 flow rateand separate temperature on the oil yield were studied. The optimal conditions were determined by orthogonal experiments. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time 60 min, extraction pressure 20 MPa, extraction temperature 40 ℃, separation temperature 50 ℃. At the conditions, the oil yield was 0.86%. GC-MS analysis revealed that the main constituent of the oil was 5,5'-dimethoxy-3,3'-dimethy-2,2'-bina-phthalene-1,1',4,4'-tetrone which amounted to 35.54%, and the other main constituent was β-hydroxy-methyl-norethisterone-methyl-oxime which amounted to 24.60 %.
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Thermal Properties and Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Tannic Acid
Yuxin LU, Lingang LU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (3): 83-89.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.011
Abstract1073)   HTML110268667)    PDF(pc) (4869KB)(743)       Save

Tannic acid(TA) is a kind of multi hydroxyl aromatic biomass. The thermal properties of TA were analyzed by thermogravimetric experiment, the carbonization process of TA was observed by muffle furnace heating experiment, the apparent activation energy was observed by KAS and Ozawa method, and the most probable function was determined by Satava method. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that TA entered the state of rapid weight loss at about 182 ℃; when the temperature reached 800 ℃, the carbon residue of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 15.29%. In air atmosphere, the carbon residue was 1.97% due to the second rapid weight loss in the temperature range of 436-538 ℃. It was found in the macro carbonization experiment that TA would form an expanded carbon layer when heated. Among them, a hollow carbon layer appeared at 100-200 ℃, and a solid carbon layer was formed at 300-400 ℃, which had obvious expansion, integrity, compactness and good gloss. It had the potential to become a new carbon source in intumescent flame retardants. The results of thermal decomposition kinetics showed that the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 494 kJ/mol, lgA was 111.32, and the most probable mechanism function of rapid weight loss stage was G(α)=[-ln(1-α)]1/n, n=0.105 3, and its thermal decomposition mechanism belonged to random nucleation and subsequent nucleation growth reaction.

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Research Progress on Dissolution Mechanism of Cellulose in Novel Solvent Systems
Xin LI,Tingting YOU,Duxin XU,Haichao LI,Yuying WU,Feng XU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2020, 40 (5): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2020.05.001
Abstract1526)   HTML1638598563)    PDF(pc) (1299KB)(1224)       Save

The cellulose dissolution capability and dissolution mechanism of current novel solvent systems, including aqueous solvent systems (NaOH aqueous solution, alkali/urea and NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution, quaternary ammonium/phosphine aqueous solution, and molten inorganic salt hydrates) and organic solvent systems (LiCl/N, N-dimethylacetamide, ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents) were reviewed. Sequentially, the advantages and disadvantages of various solvents were discussed, which could provided a reference for the future development and utilization of green cellulose solvents.

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The Changes of Three-components in Eucalyptus during Processes of Pre-processing in High Temperature Liquid Water and Enzymolysis
XU Shao-hua;WU Shu-bin;WEI Wei-qi
   2013, 33 (1): 21-26.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.01.004
Abstract966)      PDF(pc) (1311KB)(1353)       Save
The physical and chemical properties of pretreatment residue were characterized with FT-IR, SEM, XRD, et al. The pre-processing process of eucalyptus in high temperature liquid water was optimized. The results show that the optimal pretreatment conditions are as follows: temperature 180 ℃,time 20 min,liquid solid ratio 20:1. The conversion ratio of xylose is 81.93% under above optimal conditions. After optimal pretreatment, most of hemicellulose were hydrolysed, but there was a little change in the crystalline degree of cellulose. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the hot water pretreatment caused the relaxation of carbohydrate of eucalyptus,the breakage of pit membrane and the increase of fiber fragments. These significantly improved the accessibility of cellulase. It was also found that further enzymolysis of optimized pre-treatment residue improved glucose conversion to 80.52%, which increased by 3.63 times compared with these raw residue. The further analysis of enzymatic residue indicated that 87.12% acid insoluble lignin from eucalyptus could be recycled, which was conducive to the comprehensive utilization of lignin.
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Effect of Hydrogen Bonding of Ammonium-based Deep Eutectic Solvents on Cellulose Dissolution
CHEN Zishu, ZHAO Zixuan, ZHANG Shaomeng, REN Hongwei
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2018, 38 (5): 93-99.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2018.05.013
Abstract855)      PDF(pc) (2702KB)(932)       Save
A series of ammonium-based ammonium salts and amides were used as raw materials to prepare deep eutectic solvents(DES), namely, tetramethylammonium chloride/caprolactam(TMACl/CPL), tetraethylammonium chloride/caprolactam(TEACl/CPL), tetrabutylammonium chloride/caprolactam(TBACl/CPL), tetrabutylammonium acetate/caprolactam(TBAAc/CPL),tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate/caprolactam(TBAHSO 4/CPL), and tetrabutylammonium bromide/caprolactam(TBABr/CPL). The formation process of hydrogen bonds of CO-H-C and C-N-H-C between ammonium salt and caprolactam were studied by FI-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. Then, DES was used to dissolve cellulose. The effects of alkyl chain length, anion, time, temperature, viscosity and the hydrogen-bond network structure of DES on the dissolution of cellulose were explored, respectively. It was found that butyl had higher ability to dissolve cellulose than that of ethyl and methyl. Ac - could afford more reactive sites than Br -, Cl -, Ac - and HSO - 4. TBAAc/CPL was a preferable solvent and the dissolubility of cellulose was 7.8% under 100℃ and 75 min. Moreover, the dissolution mechanism of hydrogen bond on cellulose was investigated. The results showed that the raw dense and ordered structure of cellulose were changed to coarse and disordered state,and the structure of -OH,-CH and C-O-C didn't change.The cellulose was directly dissolved in ammonium-based DES, and no other derivatives were generated. XRD analysis showed that the 2 θ of cellulose before and after regeneration changed from 15.36°, 16.68°, and 22.10° to 21.99°, and the cellulose crystal form was changed from cellulose I to type Ⅱ.
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Research Progress on Electrode Materials from Activated Carbon-based Supercapacitors
Haonan CHEN, Ting YU, Yali ZHOU, Xiping LEI, Xiaolin GUAN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (5): 113-125.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.05.016
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Supercapacitors are a new type of green energy storage device with the advantages of fast charging and discharging and long service life. The electrode material is the core component of supercapacitors. The carbon from biomass is considered as a good choice for the preparation of activated carbon because of its wide variety, low price, environmental friendly, porous structure and rich in hetero-atoms, and it is the most popular electrode material for commercial applications. This paper reviewd the effects of pore structure and specific surface area on the performance of electrochemical energy storage of activated carbon, summarized the common pore structures of biomass activated carbon such as tubular, lamellar, honeycomb and network and their electrochemical properties, and analyzed the effects of different biomass components on the performance of activated carbon from three categories: plant-based, animal-based and microbial-based. Finally, the traditional methods of preparing activated carbon and the new preparation methods in recent years were briefly introduced. The problems and challenges of biomass activated carbon were pointed out. Some suggestions were provided to guide the selection of precursors for biomass activated carbon.

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Research Progress in Preparation of Biomass Based 2, 5-Furan Dicarboxylic Acid from Furoic Acid
Chun CHANG, Jinsheng WU, Zhiyong CHEN
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 1-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.001
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As a green bio-based platform chemical, 2, 5-furan dicarboxylic acid(FDCA) was widely used in polyester, plasticizer, fire protection, medicine, etc. At present, according to the distinction of raw materials for the synthesis of FDCA, the synthetic routes of FDCA could be divided into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) route, furoic acid route and other raw material routes. Among them, furfural acid could be prepared from the oxidation of bulk bio-based chemical furfural, and the industrial production of furfural made the preparation of FDCA from furfural acid had the potential advantages of green and economical. Based on this, this paper reviews the research status of four methods for preparing FDCA from furoic acid, including: disproportionation, carbonylation, carboxylation and biocatalysis methods. The paper also summarizes a comparative analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each method and highlights the progress made in their respective research fields. A comparative analysis indicates that the C-H carboxylation method is a gentle and environmentally friendly process, demonstrating significant potential for large-scale production.

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国家自然科学基金(50776035);教育部重大项目培育资金(705048);长江学者和创新团队计划 (IRT0552);国家 "863"计划(2007AA05Z408);国家自然科学基金-广东自然科学基金联合基金重点项目(U0733001)
ZHANG Jing-qiang;LIN Lu;SUN Yong;MITCHELL G;LIU Shi-jie
   2008, 28 (6): 109-114.  
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The enormous hydrogen bondings and crystal structures of natural cellulose strongly retard the hydrolysis of native cellulose into soluble sugars, which can be converted into biofuels or high value chemical products. In this paper, recent researches on cellulose structure & hydrogen bonding, as well as some promising methods and theories of decrystallization, and applicational examples were described.
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Review of Solvent System for Electrospinning of Cellulose/Chitosan Nanofibers
Kaimeng XU, Zhihui WANG, Zhengjun SHI, Jiaxi WU, Yulu ZHANG, Guanben DU
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (2): 119-129.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.02.016
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Cellulose and chitosan are the two most abundant natural biomass polymers on the earth. The novel, green and functional composite nanofibers derived from cellulose and chitosan were expected to be obtained by electrospinning, which can further expand their applications. The selection and development of the optimum solvent system is a crucial prerequisite and guarantee for the preparation of high-quality nanofibers by electrospinning. The characteristics, dissolution effects, mechanisms and spinning performance of the main solvent systems(including organic solvents, aqueous solvents and ionic liquid solvents) for electrospun cellulose, chitosan single and composite nanofibers were reviewed, which could provide a theoretical reference for the high value-added nano-utilization of cellulose and chitosan as well as the development of functional biocomposite nanofibers.

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Recent Progress in Preparation and Application of Bio-based Hydrogels
Shuo WANG, Yonggui WANG, Zefang XIAO, Yanjun XIE
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2022, 42 (5): 122-136.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.05.017
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Firstly, this review introduced the research background and application status of bio-based hydrogels. According to the different crosslinking mechanisms, physical and chemical hydrogels were classified and described. Then, the hydrogels prepared from cellulose, chitosan, protein and other bio-based materials were summarized based on the classification of the used biomass, including the solvents system of cellulose, the preparation of cellulose-based hydrogels and modification of cellulose derivatization. Also, the feedstock sources and modification methods of chitosan-based hydrogels, as well as cross-linking mechanisms such as electrostatic interaction and imine bond formed by amine groups on their molecular chains were assembled. Protein-based hydrogels with good biocompatibility and bioactivity, formed by β-folded self-assembly of polypeptide chains were depicted as well in this review. Similarly, bio-based hydrogels prepared by using physical or chemical crosslinking of hydrophilic natural polymers such as starch, sodium alginate and carrageenan, were introduced respectively. At the same time, the main applications of functionalized bio-based hydrogels in the biomedical fields were described in detail, including drug sustained release, targeted delivery, cell media, tissue repair scaffolds, wound dressings, etc. In addition, the application and research progress of bio-based hydrogels as adsorbent materials in environmental field were reviewed, and their applications in packaging, sensing, photoelectric catalysis and other fields were also highlighted. Finally, the development opportunities and challenges of bio-based hydrogels were summarized, and the future research directions were prospected.

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Research Progress on Nanocellulose and Its Use in Lithium Batteries
Ying WANG, Chunhui MA, Jin ZHOU, Mengyang LI, Jinquan YUE
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2021, 41 (6): 105-116.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.014
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As a natural material with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, nano-cellulose has unique structure and excellent mechanical properties. It has been widely used in the construction of electrochemical energy storage system of lithium-ion batteries(LIBs), and has made significant progress. This thesis provided an overview of the preparation and modification methods of cellulose nanofibrils(CNF), cellulose nanocrystals(CNC) and bacterial cellulose(BC) in the context of the application of advanced energy storage devices LIBs and green materials nanocellulose, and reviewed the research progress on the application of nanocellulose in the field of LIBs. It was mainly divided into three aspects: first, nanocellulose-based flexible LIBs electrodes; second, carbon materials derived from nano cellulose as electrodes; third, nano cellulose derived battery separator. Finally, some problems in this field were analyzed, summarized and prospected.

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Preparation and Properties of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives Derived from Rosin Bio-based Acrylate
Simai QI, Tong LUO, Meihong LIU, Chunpeng WANG, Fuxiang CHU, Jifu WANG
Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products    2023, 43 (2): 49-55.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2023.02.007
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In this work, furfural-based monomer tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate(THFMA), disproportionated rosin-based monomer(DRM), and oil-based monomer lauryl methacrylate(LMA) were used as raw materials to prepare a series of bio-based pressure-sensitive adhesives(PSA) based on THFMA/DRM/LMA by solution polymerization method. The effects of hard monomer and soft monomer composition ratio and the monomer molecular structure on the performance of PSA were investigated in detail. The results showed that the adhesion increased from 0.48 to 72 h with the increase of hard monomer THFMA in PSA from 10% to 50%. When the content of THFMA was 30%, the comprehensive performance of PSA was the best. The tack of THFMA30-LMA was 2.28 N, the 180° peel strength was 143.6 N/m, and the shear resistance reached 21.25 h. In addition, compared with THFMA, using DRM as hard monomer could enhance the mechanical properties of PSA and improve the thermal stability of PSA.

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