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    30 August 2013, Volume 33 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Microwave-assisted Co-pyrolytic Behaviors of Pine Sawdust Combinated with Low-density Polyethylene
    YANG Zhong-lian;YANG Zhong-lian;CHEN Ming-qiang;SUI Qian-qian;WANG Juan;ZHANG Ye
    2013, 33 (4):  1-8.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.001
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (2566KB) ( 785 )   Save
    The co-pyrolytic behaviors of pine sawdust and low-density polyethylene(LDPE) were investigated by TG and DSC methods. The yield and composition of the pyrolyitc products from different ratio of the pine sawdust to LDPE mixtures were studied by heating with microwave. The results showed that pine sawdust and LDPE can be co-pyrolyzed in the range of 270-480℃, which can be divided into two sections before and after 375℃. It was observed that the co-pyrolytic effect took place at the weight ratio of co-pyrolytic pine sawdust to LDPE below 10:2. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis results showed that the yield of co-pyrolytic liquid, especially guaiacols generated from wood, was reduced with the amount of LDPE increasing and microwave power enhancing. However, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone and acetic acid were increased considerably, which exceeded half content of the liquid products. The higher microwave power was used, the more non-condensable gases were generated. It was also found that the increasing amount of LDPE boosted the generation of oxycarbide gases.
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    Influence of Thermostable and Alkaline-tolerant Complex Xylanase Treatment on the Chemical Composition and Tissue Morphology of Mulberry Core
    LIU Jing-yi;YAO Qing-ling;ZHAI Hua-min
    2013, 33 (4):  9-14.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.002
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (3003KB) ( 477 )   Save
    The effects of xylanase treatment with variable enzyme dosage under different pH and temperature on the changes of chemical composition, pulp yield, and fiber morphologies were investigated in this study. The results indicated the homemade xylanase was a thermostable and alkaline-tolerant complex enzyme with minor parts of pectinase and cellulase, and could be applied in a wide range of pH and temperature. The optimized enzyme treatment conditions were 2.0 U/g of enzyme dosage, 50℃ of reaction temperature and pH 8.0, respectively. The holocellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin contents declined with the enzyme dosage increasing. The pulp yield exceeded 95% under this optimized reaction temperature and pH,. The swollen fiber walls and coarse fiber surfaces were observed after the enzyme treatment. The fiber porosity and specific surface area increased as well. This could improve the penetration and reactivity of the chemicals in aspects of physical, chemical and biological acting processes, and was beneficial to improve the bio-refinery efficiency.
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    Antioxidant Activity of Polyprenols from Pine Needles of Pinus massoniana L. in vitro and in vivo
    ZHENG Guang-yao;ZHENG Guang-yao;HE Ling;GAO Li-ping;LIAN Yan-xia;XIE Heng;BO Cai-ying
    2013, 33 (4):  15-21.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.003
    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (1748KB) ( 596 )   Save
    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant activity of polyprenols from pine needles of Pinus masso-niana L. in vitro and in vivo. In vitro antioxidant activities of polyprenols were evaluated by determining their ability to scavenge free radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial swelling. In vivo antioxidant activities were determined by their effect on antioxidant enzymatic activities in serum, heart, and liver. The results showed that polyprenols exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial swelling at the 12.5-100 mg/L. It displayed high scavenging capacity towards the hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner and the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 34.87, 27.13 and 58.23 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, polyprenols could significantly increase the activities of SOD and GSH-Px while decrease the formation of MDA in serum, liver and heart (p<0.05). Polyprenols from P. massoniana L. have excellent antioxidant activities and might be a valuable antioxidant of natural source applicable in the medicine industry.
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    Effects of Cobalt Complexes on the Combustion Process of Cottonwood with Ammonium Polyphosphate Flame Retardant
    YUAN Li-ping;WU Guo-yun;HU Yun-chu
    2013, 33 (4):  22-26.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.004
    Abstract ( 633 )   PDF (1898KB) ( 598 )   Save
    The synergistic flame-retarded effects of a similar molecular sieve[Co5(OH)2(tca)2(ina)2(H2O)2]·4H2O(Co5) and ammonium polyphosphate(APP) on cottonwood was studied by cone calorimeter. The results showed that compared with APP added individually, the combination of Co5 and APP was led to the reduction of total heat release(THR) to 18.3%, the mass loss to 7.7%, y(CO2) to 22.8 g/kg and y(CO) to 12.3 g/kg, respectively. The TGA and XRD analysis also showed that the generation of tricarballylic acid and isonicotinic acid ligands under high temperature. It can promote the decomposition of the APP and help to inhibit burning and lower the weightlessness rate. Thus, the flame retardancy of s-APP/Co5 was superior to s-APP. Co5 showed good effects on the APP flame retarded cottonwood.
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    Liquefaction of Corn Stalk Using Multi-composite Solvent
    LI Xiang-yu;ZOU Yi-gang;PANG Jiu-yin;SHI Jun-you;WANG Fa-peng;MA Chun-an
    2013, 33 (4):  27-31.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.005
    Abstract ( 646 )   PDF (1947KB) ( 444 )   Save
    Liquefaction of corn straw under multi-component composite solvent such as ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol (200) and glycerol as liquefier were studied in this paper. Orthogonal experiments L9 (34) were used to investigate the optimal liquefaction reaction conditions. The appropriate proportion of the three components (Ethylene glycol, Polyethylene glycol (200) and Glycerol) is 1:1:1, the reaction temperature is 160℃, reaction time is 60 min, catalyst amount to total liquefied agent is 3%. The liquefied rate can reach 90.53%. The product analysis shows that the corn straw can be effectively degraded by solvent liquefication. The results indicated that we can provide another possibility for subsequent processing and use.
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    Decomposition Kinetics of 5-Hydromethylfurfural Catalyzed by Solid Acids
    ZENG Shan-shan;LIN Lu;LIU Di
    2013, 33 (4):  32-36.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.006
    Abstract ( 828 )   PDF (2044KB) ( 520 )   Save
    The data about the decomposition kinetics of 5-hydromethylfurfural(5-HMF) without any catalyst and catalyzed by solid acid SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 and SO42-/ZrO2 at temperatures from 423.15 K to 463.15 K was obtained by conducting decomposition reaction in a small high-pressure batch reactor respectively. The results showed that the effects of reaction time, reaction temperature and solid acids on the 5-HMF conversion and the levulinic acid(LA) yield were significant. After fitting experimental data with the first-order kinetics equation, the evaluated apparent activation energy of 5-HMF decomposition was 106.4 kJ/mol without any catalyst, 73.42 kJ/mol catalyzed with solid acid SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 and 77.04 kJ/mol with solid acid SO42-/ZrO2, respectively. On the other hand, the solid acid catalysts are easy to be recycled and reusable.
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    Fermentation of Steam-exploded Corn Stover Hydrolysate and Its Distillation Residue by Pichia stipitis
    ZHAO Chen;FANG Hao;KONG Duan-nan;ZHU Jun-jun;YU Shi-yuan
    2013, 33 (4):  37-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.007
    Abstract ( 814 )   PDF (2346KB) ( 436 )   Save
    In order to utilize sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysate efficiently, a novel technology was applied in present study. The glucose in the corn stover hydrolysate was converted to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the ethanol in the fermentation broth was removed by distillation. Then the xylose in the distillation residue was fermented to produce ethanol by an adapted Pichia stipitis. The results showed that the ethanol yield and xylose consumption ratio of 84.4 g/L xylose fermentation in the distilled hydrolysate were 80.4% and 89.7%, respectively, after 48 h fermentation. The utilization of xylose in distillation residue with higher inhibitor concentration could be improved by higher initial pH. The ethanol yield and xylose consumption ratio were 80.2%(76.3%) and 94.8% (91.0%), respectively, when the initial pH was 5.5 and the acetic acid in the distillation residue was 3.2 g/L. This fully indiacted that xylose in S.cerevisiae culture broth can be effectively utilized by adapted P. stipitis by using this novel technological route. This novel method solved the problem of xylose utilization efficaciously in the process of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials.
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    Preparation of Mesoporous Activated Carbon from Rice Straw Using Phosphoric Acid
    LU Xin-cheng;JIANG Jian-chun;SUN Kang;XIE Xin-ping;WANG Jin-biao
    2013, 33 (4):  43-47.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.008
    Abstract ( 740 )   PDF (2905KB) ( 533 )   Save
    Mesoporous activated carbon was prepared from rice straw by chemical activation with phosphoric acid and characterized by N2 adsorption, elemental analysis and scanning electron micrograph. The results showed that activated carbon was pre-activated at 140℃ for about 60 min and then prepared at the impregnated ratio 3:1(mass ratio), activation temperature 450℃, activation duration 60 min. Under this condition, characteristics of activated carbon are: the yeild 25%, methylene blue adsorption value 215 mg/g, iodine adsorption values 835 mg/g, decolorization of caramel (A) 110%, ash content 3.03%, pecific surface area 967.7 m2/g, total volume 1.12 cm3/g, average pore diameter 4.6 nm. The ration of mesopores of activated carbon made from rice straw is 84.8%. Rice straw can be used as the material to prepare activated carbon with mesopores.
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    Molding Process of the Columnar Activated Carbon from Walnut Shell for Flue Gas Desulfurization
    CHENG Ting;CHEN Jie;HUANG Xiang;JIANG Wen-ju;GUO Jia-xiu;
    2013, 33 (4):  48-52.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.009
    Abstract ( 670 )   PDF (1705KB) ( 518 )   Save
    The influence of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) or polyvinyl butyral resin (PVB), coal tar addition and molding pressure on formation of the novel columnar activated carbon prepared from walnuts shell was investigated. The desulfurization performance of the prepared samples was investigated and the texture was characterized using nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The results showed that the columnar activated carbon could be prepared under 4 MPa of molding pressure with 50% of coal tar as basic blinder, 10% of CMC and 8% of starch as assistant binder. This activated carbon has 715.6 mg/g iodine adsorption value, 53.5% yield, 15.1 MPa compressive strength, 564.8 m2/g specific surface area and 78.9% mesopore volume. The activated carbon prepared in the above conditions has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 130.8 mg/g and breakthrough time of 8.5 h. It exhibits good desulfurization performance.
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    Antibacterial Activity of the Ginkgo biloba Polyprenols and Their Derivatives
    ZHOU Yan;WANG Cheng-zhang;LI Zai-jun
    2013, 33 (4):  53-56.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.010
    Abstract ( 635 )   PDF (1479KB) ( 441 )   Save
    Ginkgo biloba polyprenols were used as raw material, three derivatives of Ginkgo biloba polyprenols that included polyprenyl sodium phosphate, polyprenyl acetate and polyprenyl ammonium salt were synthesized by esterification and the structures of the products were characterized. Diameters of inhibition zone to S.aureus and E.coli of Ginkgo biloba polyprenols and their derivatives were determined. The MICs of four samples were determined by coubling dilution and the antibacterial spectra were studied. The results indicated that the four samples displayed good antibacterial activities to S.aureus and E.coli, and the derivatives had stronger antibacterial activity than Ginko biloba polyprenols. Four samples also had antibacterial effect to B.subtilis and S.enterica but had hardly antibacterial effect to A.niger and S.cerevisiae.
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    Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Hydronopyl Formic Acid and Its Esters
    LIU Yan;XIAO Zhuan-quan;LU Ping-ying;CHEN Jin-zhu;WANG Zong-de;FAN Guo-rong
    2013, 33 (4):  57-61.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.011
    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (1588KB) ( 468 )   Save
    Hydronopyl magnesium chloride was prepared through the Grignard reaction of hydronopyl chloride and magnesium in solvent of ether. Hydronopylformic acid was obtained from the hydrolyze reaction of diluted hydrochloric acid with the injection of CO2. Then six kinds of hydronopylformic acid esters were synthesized from the reaction of hydronopyl formic acid with methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, pentanol and hexanol with oxalic acid as catalyst respectively. The yields of the products (GC contents were over 98%) were more than 85%. The structures of the products were characterized and analyzed by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and MS methods.
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    Extraction the Pigment of Kang-xian Flower and Its Physical-chemical Properties
    WANG Xiao-qing;WANG Yu-yuan;ZHONG Min;ZENG Xiao-xiong
    2013, 33 (4):  62-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.012
    Abstract ( 587 )   PDF (2132KB) ( 483 )   Save
    The extraction conditions and physical-chemical properties of the pigment from Kang-xian flower were studied. Polar solvent such as ethonal, methonal and water were proved to effectively extract the pigment of Kang-xian flower. The most effective solvent to extract the pigment of Kang-xian flower was ethonal-water (60:40, volume ratio). The absorption peaks of the pigment from Kang-xian flower appeared at 220 nm and 260 nm by UV. The color of the pigment of Kang-xian was red at the pH 1-4, but it was faded as the pH value increased. It turned to yellow-green color when the pH value was over 7. The stability of the pigment of Kang-xian flower was good with the light and hot by pH 1 and the temperature was under 60℃. Cu2+ and Fe3+ had great influences on color and stability of the pigment. The food additive Vc also could decrease the stability of the pigment. Relative to the anti-oxidation,the anti-reduction ability of the pigment of Kang-xian flower was seemed more superior.
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    Liquefaction of Sawdust Using Glycerin and Methanol Mixture as Solvents
    YANG Zhong-zhi;JIANG Jian-chun;XU Jun-ming;HU Yi-ming
    2013, 33 (4):  67-72.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.013
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (2162KB) ( 447 )   Save
    The mixed sawdust was liquefied by glycerin and methanol as mixed solvents using a 1 L stainless steel high-pressure autovalve. This reaction was carried out at critical/supercritical effect of methanol in high temperature and pressure. The influence of reaction conditions such as reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst types and dosage on liquefaction reactions was investigated. The results showed that the optimal liquefaction conditions of the mixed sawdust is methanol 30 g, glycerin 10 g, oxalic acid 0.25 g, mix sawdust 6 g(0.28-0.90 mm), at 290℃ with reaction time 40 min. Under this reaction conditions, the conversion of sawdust is up to 92.79%. Various analysis methods such as Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer(GC-MS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gel permeation chromatography(GPC) were used to analyze the composition and molecular structure of the liquefaction oil. Moisture, acid value, viscosity and other properties of the liquefied product were also studied. The analytical results showed that the liquefaction oil is complex compounds, which mainly contains oxygen derivatives such as alcohol, ether, ester and hydroxybenzene, etc. The liquefaction oil consists of low molecular weight components, i.e., which is below 2 300.
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    Surface Wetting Characteristic of Paper-process Reconstituted Tobacco and Natural Tobacco Leaf
    HAN Ying-ying;YUAN Qing-zhao;YANG Fei;TAO Hong;RAO Guo-hua;HU Jing;ZHOU Rong
    2013, 33 (4):  79-82.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.015
    Abstract ( 521 )   PDF (3959KB) ( 445 )   Save
    The surface wetting properties of paper-process reconstituted tobacco and natural tobacco leaf under different relative humidity were investigated in present study. The advancing contact angle was measured by Dynamic Contact Angle Analyzer (DCA). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) were also utilized to compare the surface morphology. The results showed that whether the water or essence was used as the liquid medium, the advancing contact angle of natural tobacco leaf was greater than 90°. It exhibited a hydrophobic property. While the advancing contact angle of paper-process reconstituted tobacco is less than 90°, it presents its hydrophilic surface property. For tobacco leaf, a smoother surface, and denser leaf structure were observed as compared to paper-process reconstituted tobacco. Furthermore, the surface roughness of tobacco leaf is lower than paper-process reconstituted bobacco under different relative humidity(respectively 37.23 nm, 82.97 nm and 227.99 nm, 105.35 nm). The coarser surface and porous structures of paper-process reconstituted tobacco verified the finding of its dymatic contact angle.
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    Optimization of Extraction of Phenolics from Walnut Pellicle Using Response Surface Methodology and Their Antioxidant Capacities
    ZHOU Ye;WANG Wei;TAO Ran;CHEN Hong-xia;WANG Cheng-zhang;PEI Dong
    2013, 33 (4):  73-78.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.014
    Abstract ( 617 )   PDF (2552KB) ( 574 )   Save
    Using temperature, time and liquid/solid ratio as independent variables, a Box-Behnken design was applied to optimise the extraction of phenolics from walnut pellicle by using response surface methodology. The results indicated that when the ultrasonic power was set at 100 W, the optimum ultrasonic extraction conditions for walnut pellicle phenolics were as follows: extraction temperature 53℃,extraction time 55 min,liquid/solid ratio 58:1(mL:g). Under this optimum condition, the extraction yield was 30.79%. It was found that the phenolics extracted from walnut pellicle behaved stronger antioxidant activities than ascorbic acid when they were under the same concentration. The IC50 values of scavenging activity of pellicle phenolics on DPPH free radicals and ABTS were 3.38 mg/L and 36.44 mg/L,respectively,while those of ascorbic acid were 4.72 mg/L and 82.23 mg/L, respectively.
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    Purification, Degradation and Scavenging Activities on DPPH Free Radical of Proanthocyanidins from Black Wattle Bark
    ZHAO Zhi-jie;XIONG Jia;WANG Fei
    2013, 33 (4):  83-88.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.016
    Abstract ( 628 )   PDF (2437KB) ( 461 )   Save
    Proanthocyanidins were extracted from black wattle bark by the ultrasonic technology and purified on AB-8 resin. The oligomers were extracted with ethyl acetate and polymers in water were degraded by H2SO3. Finally, the scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·) of each fraction were determined. The results showed that the mass fraction of proanthocyanidins in crude extraction increased from 36.2% to 50.4% by purification on AB-8 resin. The recovery was 90.3%. The proanthocyanidins were degraded by H2SO3 significantly and the average degree of polymerization drop to 6.25 from 8.11 after degradation. It was found that the proanthocyanidins after degradation had higher DPPH scavenging activity and EC50reduced from 2.25% to 1.88%.
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    Ultrasonic Extraction of Lignans from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
    PENG Mi-jun;LV Qiang;PENG Sheng;ZHANG Chang-wei;ZHANG Lin-jie;QU Xiang
    2013, 33 (4):  89-92.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.017
    Abstract ( 572 )   PDF (1514KB) ( 522 )   Save
    Ultrasonic extraction of lignans from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. was studied. Three main factors including EtOH volume fraction, ratio of liquor to material and extraction time on extraction rate of lignans were investigated using single factor analysis. The optimal processing conditions for ultrasonic extraction of lignans from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. were obtained by orthogonal tests. The results showed that the optimum parameters were the mass of Eucommia bark about 1 g EtOH volume fraction 65%, ratio of liquor to material 20:1(mL:g), ultrasonic extracting for 45 min once after soaking for 12 h. The yield of lignans was 7.652% and extraction rate was 97.78%.
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    Synthesis of 3,4,5-Trimethoxyaniline
    XU Xu;LIU Bing;YANG Yang;WANG Shi-fa;
    2013, 33 (4):  93-100.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.018
    Abstract ( 731 )   PDF (3031KB) ( 531 )   Save
    3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline was synthesized from 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzioc acid. 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline through chlorination of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzioc acid, amidation of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride and Hofmann rearrangement reaction of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide. The structure of 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline was determined by FT-IR and GC-MS spectra. The optimal reaction conditions of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride was as follows: n(phosphorus trichloride):n(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzioc acid)=0.65:1, toluene as the solvent, v(toluene):n(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzioc acid)=0.6:1(L:mol), reaction temperature 80℃, reaction time 3 h. The optimal reaction conditions of (3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide) was as follows: n(ammonia):n(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride)=4:1, reaction temperature-5-0℃, reaction time 30 min. The optimal reaction conditions of (3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline) was as follows: n(NaOH):n(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide)=9:1, n(Br2):n(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide)=1.15:1, rearrangement reaction temperature 40℃, rearrangement reaction time 20 min, decarboxylation temperature 85℃, decarboxylation time 1 h, deionized water as the solvent. Yield of obtained product was 66.8%, m.p. 112.5-113.5℃, purity of obtained product was 99.0%.
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    Dynamic Analysis of Adsorption Behaviour of n-Butane in Granular Activated Carbon
    GUO Hao;DENG Xian-lun;LIU Xiao-min;WANG Guo-dong;ZHU Guang-zhen
    2013, 33 (4):  101-107.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.019
    Abstract ( 659 )   PDF (2934KB) ( 468 )   Save
    In this paper, wood-based granular activated carbon was used to study adsorption kinetics of n-butane. The effects of the adsorption temperature, the n-butane concentration and the n-butane flow rate were investigated. Then the date was fit by first order kinetics model, pseudo-second order kinetic model, Elovich kinetic model and Ben nahum kinetic model. The results showed that with the increasing of temperature, the adsorption amount of n-butane decreased. This indicated that adsorption of n-butane in activated carbon was an exothermic reaction. With the increasing of the n-butane concentration, n-butane adsorption performance also increased, but the adsorption time did not reduce. The flow rate of n-butane significantly influenced adsorption rate and adsorption time, but it had minor influence on the amount of n-butane adsorbed at equilibrium. It is also found that the R2 of Bangham equation is more than 0.99, which is much higher than the other three kinetic equation. Therefore the absorption kinetics is well satisfied with Bangham equation.
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    Optimization for Extraction of Polysaccharides from Toddalia asiatica by Ultrasonic Pretreatment
    WANG Peng;TIAN Chun-lian;TIAN Qi-jian
    2013, 33 (4):  108-112.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.020
    Abstract ( 662 )   PDF (1715KB) ( 467 )   Save
    The ultrasonic pretreatment followed by hot water treatment was investigated to establish a method to extract polysaccharide from Toddalia asiatica. Effects of operation conditions on polysaccharide yield, such as ultrasonic power, extracting time, temperature and the ratio between material and water were studied by single factor experiment and orthogonal test. The result showed that the optimal extraction technology of polysaccharides was the ratio between water and material 15:1 (mL:g), pretreatment by 250 W ultrasound for 25 min, then was of the traditional water extraction at temperature 55℃ for 2 h. The polysaccharide yield was 2.18%. Compared with traditional water extraction, the polysaccharide yield was improved by 66.4% under the ultrasonic-pretreated extraction.
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    Extraction of Volatile Oil from Radix ophiopogonis by Supercritical CO2
    GONG Yun-yun;JIN Jian-zhong
    2013, 33 (4):  113-116.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.021
    Abstract ( 576 )   PDF (1565KB) ( 406 )   Save
    The volatile oil of Radix ophiopogonis was extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide.Single factor experiment and orthogonal design were used to study the influences of extraction conditions on the yield of volatile oil. The optimum extraction parameters of 100 g R.ophiopogonis were established with extraction pressure of 30 MPa, extraction temperature of 55℃, flow rate of CO2 at 14 kg/h, and the extraction time of 1.5 h. The optimum technology for supercritical CO2 extraction of volatile oil from Radix ophiopogonis was high efficient, and the yield of volatile oil was up to 0.31%.
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    LC-ESI-MS Analysis of Fragmentive Products of Pine Bark Proanthocyanidins
    JIANG Yong-xin;ZHU Hong-tao;WANG Jun-min;ZHANG Ying-jun;ZHANG Jia-yan;HUA Yan;ZHAO Ping
    2013, 33 (4):  117-120.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.022
    Abstract ( 635 )   PDF (1709KB) ( 488 )   Save
    The fragmentive products of pine bark proanthocyanidins were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS technique. Three new products were formed from the fragmentive reaction with tea polyphenols as a nucleophile. Their structures were deduced as (epi)catechin-(4β-8)-(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2), (epi)catechin-(4β-8)-(-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (1), and (epi)catechin-(4β-8)-(+)-gallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3).
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    Chemical Constituents of the Branches of Ailanthus altissima Swingle
    LIU Ji-mei;ZHANG Zhong-wei;YAO Jia;WANG Jin-lan;ZHAO Ming;ZHANG Shu-jun
    2013, 33 (4):  121-127.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.023
    Abstract ( 646 )   PDF (2083KB) ( 470 )   Save
    Eleven compounds have been isolated from the branches of Ailanthus altissima Swingle. On the basis of the physicochemical properties and spectral data, they were determined as 12β,20β-dihydroxyldamar-23-en-3-ketone (1), 20β-hydroxyldamar-23-en-3-ketone (2), ocotillone (3),piscidinol A (4), β-sitosterin (5), canthin-6-one (6), 20R-24β-hydroxyl-20,25-epoxydamar-3-one (7), ailanthone (8), 2-dihydroailanthone (9),bourjotinolone B (10) and 20(S),24(S)-dihydroxyeupha-25-en-3-one (11) The compounds 7, 10 and 11 are isolated from this plant for the first time. The dichloromethane extracts and n-BuOH extracts from EtOH extracts of A. Altissima Swingle have shown certain antibacteria activities for Tomato frost cactorum.
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    Optimization of Microwave-assisted Extraction of Luffa Seed Oil by Response Surface Analysis
    YANG Jie;ZHANG Jin-sheng;LI Li-hua;ZHAO Wen-tao;YU Yong-qing
    2013, 33 (4):  128-132.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.024
    Abstract ( 610 )   PDF (2147KB) ( 450 )   Save
    The optimum extraction conditions of microwave technology were studied for the luffa seed oil. The effects of the proportion of petroleum ether and anhydrous alcohol, temperature, time and liquid to material ratio on extraction rate of the oil in luffa seed were studied by single-factor experiments. On the base of single-factor experiments and three-level four-factor box-behnken design, the optimal conditions of microwave-assisted extraction were concluded as follows: the volume ratio of petroleum ether to anhydrous alcohol 2:1, temperature 51℃, time 14 min, liquid to material ratio 11 mL/g. In this condition, the actual luffa seed oil extraction rate was 10.92% which is almost equal to the predictable value.
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    Chemical Constituents from the Branch of Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers.
    CHEN Zhan-juan;BI He-ping;FAN Chao-jun;BAO Chang-yu
    2013, 33 (4):  133-136.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.025
    Abstract ( 611 )   PDF (1468KB) ( 647 )   Save
    The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by column chromatography over silicagel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative TLC in 95% alcohol extract of Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Nine compounds were isolated and identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data, i.e., β-sitostenone(1), β-sitosterol(2), 2,5-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone(3), 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone(4), N-transferuloyl-3-methyldopamine(5), N-trans-feruloyl tyramine(6), N-p-coumaroyltyramine(7), daucosterol(8)and 1,2-dihydro-6,8-dimethoxy-7-1-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-N1,N2-bis-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]-2,3-naphthalene dicarboxamide(9). Compounds 1,3,4,9 was separated from Litsea plant for the first time.
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    Separation of Chemicals from Bio-oil and Their Application Prospects
    LV Dong-can;LIU Yun-quan;WANG Duo;YE Yue-yuan
    2013, 33 (4):  137-143.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.026
    Abstract ( 696 )   PDF (2756KB) ( 543 )   Save
    Bio-oil is a renewable, environmentally-friendly energy source. The recovery of chemicals from it had attracted a lot of attentions and certain progress was also achieved over the past decades. In this paper, various methods for separation of chemicals from bio-oil were reviewed. Phenols can be extracted with organic solvents after alkalization-acidification treatment; acetic acid can be separated via reactive extraction; sugars can be recovered with organic solvents; and aldehydes can be separated by forming Schiff-base. The chemicals extracted from bio-oil can be used in agricultural, food or chemical industry, for instance, they are used as nitrogen slow-releasing organic fertilizer, flavoring additives, de-icer agent and phenolic resins. The main challenges for separations were summarized, and the future research directions were pointed out, too.
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    Research Advance of Cardanol-based Surfactants
    YANG Xiao-hui;;XIAO Guo-min;WANG Zhi-min;JING Fei;ZHOU Yong-hong;JIANG Jian-chun;
    2013, 33 (4):  144-148.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.027
    Abstract ( 1041 )   PDF (2023KB) ( 3218 )   Save
    This paper reviews recent progress in the cardanol-based surfactants. Especially, cardanol-based anionic surfactant (cardanol sulfonate, cardanol sulfate, cardanol carboxylate) and nonionic surfactants have been widely researched and deve-loped. However, the study of cardanol-based cationic surfactants has not yet been reported. In addition, this paper also prospects the research and application of the cardanol-based surfactants in future.
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    Research Progress of Activated Carbon Material Supported by Nano-TiO2
    LI Dong-na;MA Xiao-jun
    2013, 33 (4):  149-154.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2013.04.028
    Abstract ( 666 )   PDF (2715KB) ( 618 )   Save
    Activated carbon supported by Nano-TiO2 is one of the potential photo-catalyst. It presents excellent adsorption properties and photocatalysis performance. Nano-TiO2 can be loaded on activated carbon by powder sintering, dip-coating and sol-gel or chemical vapor deposition. The research status and application progress of activated carbon supported by Nano-TiO2 are discussed, such as waste water treatment, air purification, and sterilization.
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