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Table of Content

    25 February 2014, Volume 34 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Effects of Hydrolyzate of Corn Stover Acetyl Groups on Ethanol Fermentation and Its Removal Strategy
    ZHU Jun-jun, ZHU Yuan-yuan, CHENG Ting, XU Yong, YONG Qiang, YU Shi-yuan
    2014, 34 (1):  1-7.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.001
    Abstract ( 393 )   PDF (2383KB) ( 490 )   Save
    The effects of acetic acid liberated from the hemicellulose acetyl groups during the lignocellulose pretreatment on the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis were investigated. The results showed that acetic acid had a significant influence on the fermentation of both pentose and hexose. According to the formation process of acetic acid, sodium hydroxide pretreatment was applied to remove the acetic acid, while cellulose and hemicelluloses were less degraded. This method separated acetic acid from residual polysaccharides from the original source. Based on the results of the single factor experiments (the concentration of NaOH, treatment temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and treatment time), response surface methodology was applied to further optimize the pretreatment conditions. The results showed that the importance sequence of the mentioned 4 factors was followed by the concentration of NaOH, liquid-solid ratio, treatment temperature and treatment time. Under the optimal condition (5.45 g/L NaOH concentration, 13:1(mL:g) liquid-to-solid ratio, 62 ℃ treatment temperature, and 45 min treatment time), the removal ratio of the acetic acid and the retention ratio of xylan was 95.19 % and 87.80 %, respectively.
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    Preparation of Chitosan Composite Hydrogels and Its Effective Adsorption of Copper (Ⅱ) Ions from Aqueous Solutions
    GUO Dou-dou, PANG Hao, LIU Hai-lu, XU Li-li, ZHENG Jing-xin, LIAO Bing
    2014, 34 (1):  8-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.002
    Abstract ( 588 )   PDF (1568KB) ( 384 )   Save
    A series of adsorbents synthesized from chitosan-grafted-methacrylic acid/acrylamide/sodium allyl sulfonate (CTS-g-MAA/AM/SAS) composite hydrogels with various amounts of SAS were prepared. The effects of particle size, dosage of composite hydrogel, the pH value and initial concentration of Cu2+ in solution on the adsorption capacity were investigated. The results showed that a adsorption capacity of the CTS-g-MAA/AM/SAS composite hydrogels was increased with the increasing of pH value. A maximum absorption amount of Cu2+ of 823 mg/g was observed using 0.1 g/25 mL absorbent with particle size of 0.074-0.2 mm under pH value of 6.0. Freundlich, Langmuir plots and their isotherm coefficients for the adsorption of Cu2+ indicated a multilayer adsorption behavior using this adsorbent.
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    Kinetics of Fuel Ethanol Production by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Straw Stalk
    CHEN Kun CHEN Kun, XU Long-jun, YANG Rui, BI Zhi-ming, FU Zhi-lei
    2014, 34 (1):  13-18.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.003
    Abstract ( 463 )   PDF (784KB) ( 289 )   Save
    The kinetics of fuel ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of straw stalk in different solid-liquid ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:15 and 1:20) was studied. Experimental process parameters were cellulose enzyme 20 U/g, fermentation temperature 38 ℃, inoculum size 15 % and inoculation proportion 2:1 (tube capsule yeast and S. cerevisiae). The results showed that the highest yield of ethanol (0.183 g/g) was obtained when a solid-liquid ratio was 1:15. The relationship between ethanol concentration c and fermentation time t could be described as c=abt/(1+bt). The parameter a decreased with a decreasing solid-liquid ratio, whereas the parameter b increased. The conversion reaction of straw stalk to ethanol under different solid-liquid ratios was fractal-like. The relationship between the rate constant and fermentation time was described in the following equation, i.e., k=k1t-h.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Magnetic Poly (N-isopr-opylacrylamide)-poly (Acrylic Acid) Hybrid Nanospheres
    NAN Jing-ya, CHEN Ying, WANG Chun-peng, CHU Fu-xiang
    2014, 34 (1):  19-24.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.004
    Abstract ( 483 )   PDF (6364KB) ( 284 )   Save
    In this study, a convenient approach has been proposed for the preparation of magnetic poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly (acrylic acid) (PNIPAm-PAA) hybrid nanospheres. In the first step, hollow PNIPAm-PAA nanocapules, of which the diameter was about 500 nm, were synthesized by precipitation polymerization with hydropropylcellulose-poly (acrylic acid) (HPC-PAA) particles as the template. In the second step, the electrostatic interaction self-assembly method and the in situ reduction method were adopted to generate the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles inside the nanocpsules. Thus the magnetic Fe3O4/PNIPAm-PAA hybrid nanospheres were finally obtained and the average diameter was 400 nm. In addition, a high drug loading capacity and a sustained-release behavior were presented by using anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox) as a hydrophilic model drug. It indicated that the Fe3O4/PNIPAm-PAA hybrid nanospheres might be used as a new magnetic-targeted drug carrier for the drug delivery system.
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    Effects of Surfactants on Silica Encapsulating Maleopimaric Acid Glycidyl Ester Type Epoxy Resin
    LIN Guang-yuan, WU Guo-min, KONG Zhen-wu
    2014, 34 (1):  25-30.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.005
    Abstract ( 563 )   PDF (2964KB) ( 357 )   Save
    A novel microcapsule was prepared from silica encapsulating maleopimaric acid glycidyl ester type epoxy resin (MPTGE) by sol-gel process. In these microcapsules system, MPTGE was used as the core material, and tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS) acted as the shell material. Some ionic, nonionic, macromolecular surfactants and a rosin-basd surfactant (MP) which was synthesized from MPTGE and polyoxyalkylene were used as the stabilizer. The effects of different surfactants and concentrations on the particle size and distribution of the encapsulated microcapsules were investigated. The surface morphology, particle size and distribution of microcapsules were characterized by optical microscope, scanning electronic microscope and zeta size analyzer, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the surfactant MP synthesized from MPTGE was favorable to form TEOS encapsulating MPTGE microcapsules. The microcapsules had smooth and compact outer surface when the amount of MP was close to 16.7 %.
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    The Chemical Reaction Process of Bonding Birch with Isocyanate at the Condition of High Moisture Content
    WEI Shuang-ying, LI Cun-lu, WANG Di, GU Ji-you, CAO Jun
    2014, 34 (1):  31-36.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.006
    Abstract ( 460 )   PDF (1666KB) ( 290 )   Save
    The bonding mechanism of birch in high moisture content glued with moisture curing isocyanate adhesive was investigated in this paper. The reaction processes between isocyanate groups (—NCO) in glued systems and free water or hydroxyl (—OH) in different chemical environment of birch were simulated using DMol3 program of Material Studio software. The difficulty and order of reaction were determined by searching the transition state and computation of the activation energy and the total energy of reaction. The investigations showed that the activation energy of reaction between —NCO groups and free water was closed to that between —NCO groups and —OH of cellulose. This indicated that these were a couple of competitive reactions. The reaction between —NCO and —OH of cellulose in the glued system occurs relatively easier than the reaction of —NCO and —OH of lignin. Furthermore, the order of reaction in cellulose is C6 >C3 >C1 >C2 and all of reactions in cellulose are exothermic. The order of reaction in lignin is lilac propane (Lig-S)> guaiacyl propane (Lig-G)>p-hydroxyphenyl propane (Lig-H). The reactions of Lig-S and Lig-G are exothermic, but the reaction of Lig-H was an endothermic reaction.
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    Analysis of the Association between Cellulose and Lignin by Carbon 13 Tracer Method with Cellulose Precursor
    XIANG Song-ming, XIE Yi-min, YANG Hai-tao, YAO Lan
    2014, 34 (1):  37-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.007
    Abstract ( 524 )   PDF (1804KB) ( 300 )   Save
    In this paper, carbohydrate part of the lignin-carbohydrate complexes(LCC) in cell wall was labelled with 13C and traced with 13C NMR. Cellulose precursor, i.e., uridine diphoshphate glucose-[6-13C], was synthesized, and injected into a living ginkgo tree together with lignin inhibitor AOPP and exogenous lignin precursor. It is proved that uridine diphoshphate glucose-[6-13C] is a suitable precursor for selective 13C-enrichment of cellulose in a plant. The specifically 13C-enriched LCC was isolated from the newly formed xylem of ginkgo shoots. Then it was degraded by cellulase and hemicellulase. Thus the lignin-rich fractions,which were called enzyme-degraded LCC (EDLCC), were obtained. By determining their FT-IR and 13C NMR spectra, information confirms that the bonds between C6 position of glucose units in cellulose and α-carbons of lignin side chain are benzyl ether linkage.
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    The Synthesis of N,N-Dimethyl Dehydroabietylamine Oxide and Its Properties
    DING Yu-qiu, LIU Shao-gang, LI Long, DING Yu-bo, DIAO Kai-sheng
    2014, 34 (1):  43-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.008
    Abstract ( 530 )   PDF (2135KB) ( 353 )   Save
    A new dehydroabietylamine derivative, i.e., N,N-dimethyl dehydroabietylamine oxide, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine (99 %) via alkylation and oxidation. Its structure was identified by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra. The oxidation conditions were optimized by the L16(45) orthogonal test. The results showed that suitable synthesis reaction conditions of the titled compound were as follows: N,N-dimethyl dehydroabietylamine oxide and H2O2 molar ratio of 1.5:1, reaction time of 12 h, EDTA of 1.5 % and reaction temperature of 80 ℃. The GC content of the tertiary amine oxide were above 70 % in repetitive experiments. The surfactivity experiment showed that the critical micelle concentration(CMC) can be as low as 0.2 g/L, and the surface tension is 22.75 mN/m. And a new type of adsorbent prepared from amine oxide-modified zeolite has better adsorption effect on a certain concentration of humic acid and Congo red. When the initial concentration of 40 mg/L reached equilibrium, the removal rates were 51.1% and 91.0 %, respectively.
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    Design of Liner Type Double Heated Biomass Pyrolysis Reactor
    LI San-ping, WANG Shu-yang, SUN Xue, CAO You-wei
    2014, 34 (1):  49-56.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.009
    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (3912KB) ( 369 )   Save
    Nowadays the cost of the device for preparing bio-oil is very high with low durability. On the other hand, the reactor usually needs exogenous heating. This results in high energy consumption in preparation of bio-oil clean fuel. On the basis of the existing types of fluidized bed reactor design experience, this paper presented a calculation model for designing fluidized biomass pyrolysis reactor. By using the model, a kind of liner type double heated biomass pyrolysis reactor is designed in this paper. Then the main parameters of the reactor are optimized using VB. The optimal reactor is bed diameter 0.221 m with the height 1.445 m.
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    Preparation of Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery from Alkali Lignin Pretreated with Hydrogen Peroxide
    SHEN Shi-cheng, ZHOU Yu-jie, MI Jie, ZHANG Jian-an, DAI Ling-mei, LIU De-hua, CHOO Y M, LOH S K
    2014, 34 (1):  57-61.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.010
    Abstract ( 427 )   PDF (1585KB) ( 317 )   Save
    The method for synthesis of surfactants for enhanced oil recovery, including pretreatment with H2O2, sulfonation, amination and alkylation, was studied with alkali lignin as feedstock. Firstly, the effects of pretreatment conditions on surface tension were investigated. The suitable pretreatment conditions were that mass ratio of H2O2 to alkali lignin was 1:10 at 70 ℃ for 30 min. Under the pretreatment conditions, the surface tension of 0.9 % surfactant solution could be reduced to 24 mN/m. The effects of surfactant and alkali concentration on oil-water interfacial tension of Gudao crude oil were also studied. The results showed that when both the surfactant concentration and NaOH concentration was 0.4 %, the oil-water interfacial tension was decreased to 0.07 mN/m. It was more stable than the control surfactants synthesized without H2O2 pretreatment. Finally, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) analysis indicated the structural characterization of lignin before and after modification.
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    Synthesis and Fungicidal Activity of Maleated Rosin-based Disulfamide Compounds
    SHI Xian-chun, XU Xue-tang, DUAN Wen-gui, MIN Fang-qian, HUANG Duo-yun
    2014, 34 (1):  62-72.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.011
    Abstract ( 478 )   PDF (1954KB) ( 312 )   Save
    Maleated rosin acyl chloride was prepared via acyl chlorination using maleated rosin as starting material. It was followed by the N-acylation reaction of maleated rosin acyl chloride with N-aryl sulfonyl ethylenediamines to obtain fourteen novel maleated rosin-based disulfonamide compounds (4a-4n). The target compounds were characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H NMR,13C NMR, ESI-MS, UV-Vis, and elemental analysis. Compounds 4a-4n were identified to be maleated rosin-based diphenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(p-methyl)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(m-methyl)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(p-methoxy)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(m-methoxy)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(p-bromo)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(m-bromo)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(p-chloro)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(m-chloro)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(p-fluoro)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(o-fluoro)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(p-nitro)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(m-nitro)phenylsulfamide, maleated rosin-based di(o-nitro)phenylsulfamide, respectively. The preliminary bioassay showed that compounds 4a-4n exhibited a certain fungicidal activity against five tested fungi. Among them compound 4k, maleated rosin-based di(o-fluoro)phenylsulfamide, had inhibition rate of 66.8 % against Physalospora piricola at the concentration of 50 mg/L.
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    Effects of Pretreatment on Liquefaction of Pine Sawdust and Chemical Components of Product
    HE Xiao-liang, JIANG Jian-chun, JIANG Xiao-xiang, YANG Zhong-zhi
    2014, 34 (1):  73-78.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.012
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (3381KB) ( 355 )   Save
    Pine sawdust was liquefied using methanol-water mixed solvent as liquid agent. The effects of the pretreatment conditions on structural changes of the surface and the liquefaction conversion rate were investigated. The effects of reaction temperature and residence time on sawdust liquefaction were studied, too. The results indicated that different pretreatment can change the sawdust structure. The sawdust pretreated by NaOH had the most structural change. This could broaden the chemical reactivity. The conversion of sawdust was 92.4 % after pretreatment of sodium hydroxide solution at 320 ℃ for 10 min. GC-MS analysis showed that the liquid products mainly included alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters and phenols. It was also found that pretreatment had an important effect on their contents which reached 40.588 %. The major component of liquid product produced with sawdust was aldehyde compounds and urea yields acid compounds. Their contents were 30.878 % and 25.311 %,respectively. The sawdust pretreated by NaOH trends to formate of ketone compounds,while sawdust pretreated by mixed NaOH and urea yields about 38.478 % phenolic compounds.
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    Influence of Process Parameters on Bio-oil Yield by Vacuum Pyrolysis
    FAN Yong-sheng, CAI Yi-xi, LI Xiao-hua, ZHAO Wei-dong, YU Ning
    2014, 34 (1):  79-85.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.013
    Abstract ( 441 )   PDF (2848KB) ( 418 )   Save
    Rape straw was treated by vacuum pyrolysis for bio-oil preparation. The pyrolysis temperature, system pressure, heating rate and holding time were chosen as input factors, the bio-oil yield as the output. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for the optimization of bio-oil yield based on single factor tests. The Design Expert 8.0.6 software was used to build a second order quadratic equation. The optimal conditions were obtained by using the equation. In addition, confirmation experiments were conducted. The results showed that the pyrolysis temperature, system pressure, heating rate were the main factors for the bio-oil yield, while the holding time was the second factor. Optimal conditions were obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 494.0 ℃, system pressure of 5.0 kPa, heating rate of 18.4 ℃/min and holding time of 60.0 min. Confirmation runs gave 43.50 % of bio-oil yield, which is comparable to 43.63 % of predicted value.
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    Synthesis and Identification of Cedrane-8,9-diol
    ZHENG De-yong
    2014, 34 (1):  86-90.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.014
    Abstract ( 652 )   PDF (1356KB) ( 287 )   Save
    Cedrane-8,9-diol(1H-3a, 11-Methanoazulen-8,9-diol, octahydro-2,6,6,8-tetramethyl)was synthesized from cedrene by peroxidation and hydration reactions in one pot, and the total yield was 52.5 %. Then the white needle crystal was produced by the process of settlement, vacuum distillation, crystallization and recrystallization. The GC content of cedrane-8,9-diol in the crystal was 99.3 %. The relative molecular weight and the molecular formula were determined by method of element analysis and mass spectrum (MS). The main peaks of Infrared spectrum (IR) showed that, there was no carbonyl group in the molecular structure of cedrane-8,9-diol, but there was two adjacent hydroxyls in it. The main high m/z ion peaks and low m/z ion peaks produced from the title compound by MS could be reasonably interpreted according to the raw materials and synthesis reaction mechanism. The MS detection results showed that the title compound has the same carbon skeleton with cedrene. The protons in the compound were exactly attached by 1H NMR spectrum, and the molecule's structure was determined.
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    The Effect of Two-step Treatment on Acetylated Products of Mulberry Wood Flour
    YAN Wei, LI Xiao-bao, SU Meng, HONG Jian-guo
    2014, 34 (1):  91-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.015
    Abstract ( 383 )   PDF (2322KB) ( 275 )   Save
    For utilizing the main components of the mulberry branch effectively and obtaining acetylated products with low degraded degree, the method of two-step acetylation was carried out under the relatively mild condition. At the first step, the acetylated product(AS1) was obtained after 3 h at 80 ℃, and the quality ratio of sulfuric acid, acetic anhydride and acetic acid with the raw material was 1:8, 25:2 and 10:1, respectively. At the second step, the acetylated product(AS2) was obtained after 4 h at 90 ℃, and the quality ratio like the above was 1:20, 15:2 and 15:2. The results showed that the yield of the acetylated product by two-step was 112.60%, the intrinsic viscosity was 71.09 mL/g and its initial degradation temperature was 175 ℃. They were all superior to those by the trifluoroacetic-acid method and high-temperature method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the product by two-step acetylated showed that the signals corresponding to acetyl were identified. Thermogravimetric analysis(TGA)showed that the product started to degrade at 175 ℃ and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results revealed that the glass transition point was 160 ℃.
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    Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. var. fulvotomentosum (Hsu) Hsu
    JIN Xiao-xi, HE Pei, JIANG Yan, LI Hui-jun
    2014, 34 (1):  97-100.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.016
    Abstract ( 454 )   PDF (1261KB) ( 374 )   Save
    Eleven compounds were isolated from the stems of Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. var. fulvotomentosum (Hsu) Hsu. They were identified as 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside(2), rutin(3), chlorogenic acid(4), taraxerol(5), stigmasterol(6), ursolic acid(7), hexadecanoic acid(8), tetracosanoic acid(9), β-sitosterol(10) and daucosterol(11). Compounds 1-11 were isolated from Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. var. fulvotomentosum (Hsu) Hsu for the first time.
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    Preparation of Cellulose-based Granular Activated Carbon Using Phosphoric Acid as Activator
    LIN Guan-feng, JIANG Jian-chun, WU Kai-jin, CHEN Han, CHANG Ying-cui
    2014, 34 (1):  101-106.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.017
    Abstract ( 680 )   PDF (1613KB) ( 273 )   Save
    Microcrystalline cellulose was used to prepare cellulose-based granular activated carbon by phosphoric acid activation without any other binder.The effect of kneading and carbonization/activation process on abrasion strenth, adsorptive properties and porous texture of granular activated carbon was discussed.The results showed that both increasing temperature and prolonging holding time of carbonization/activation were beneficial for abrasion strength improvement. Besides, the adsorption capability of iodine and methylene blue,the special surface area(BET),total pore volume,micropore volume and mesopore volume for granular activated carbon increased with the increasing impregnation ratio.When the impregnation ratio was low,the smaller microporous structure was developed. On the other side, when the impregnation ratio was increased,the bigger microporous structure was enlarged. Under the optimized condition,i.e. kneading temperature 150 ℃, kneading time 55 min, impregnation ratio 1.25,carbonization/activation temperature 450 ℃ and holding time 1.0 h,the iodine adsorption value, methylene blue adsorption value, abrasion strength,BET,total pore volume,microporous volume, mesoporous volume and average pore width of the sample were 896.6 mg/g, 131.3 mg/g, 94.69 %,1 377.3 m2/g,1.083 cm3/g,0.514 cm3/g, 0.569 cm3/g and 3.14 nm,respectively.
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    Ultrasound-assisted Vacuum Extraction of Polyphenols from Jujube Peel
    YOU Feng, HUANG Lin-xin, ZHANG Cai-hong, XIE Pu-jun, ZHANG Yao-lei
    2014, 34 (1):  107-112.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.018
    Abstract ( 486 )   PDF (1677KB) ( 288 )   Save
    In order to obtain maximum yield of polyphenols from jujube peel, ultrasound-assisted vacuum extraction (UAVE) was chosen to extract the peel of Ziziphus jujube var. Changzao. The effects of various conditions were investigated by single factor experiments and orthogonal design L9(34). Based on the optimization condition, three extraction methods, i.e., UAVE, ultrasound assist extraction(UAE) and conventional extraction(CE), were compared with both extraction time and polyphenols yield. To further evaluate UAVE, the radical scavenging activities (DPPH·) was measured, too. Results showed that: the optimal conditions were 50 % aqueous ethanol as extraction solvent, temperature 55 ℃, solid/liquid ratio 1:30(g:mL), ultrasonic power 240 W, extraction time 10 min. Under this condition, the polyphenols yield could be 5.05 %, and the extraction rate could reach 97.37 % with duplicate extraction. UAVE has advantages such as high yield and time saving by comparison with CE and UAE. The polyphenols extracted by UAVE showed that higher antioxidant activities could be obtained than those by CE and UAE. It indicated that UAVE could protect the bioactive capacity of polyphenols from jujube peel.
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    Preparation of Granular Activated Carbon from China Fir with Super-high Surface Area by Catalysis Activation
    ZHU Guang-zhen, DENG Xian-lun, GUO Hao, ZHANG Yan-ping
    2014, 34 (1):  113-116.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.019
    Abstract ( 444 )   PDF (1028KB) ( 324 )   Save
    Super-high specific surface area granular activated carbon (GAC) from China fir sawdust was prepared through adding concentrated sulfuric acid in the traditional technology by phosphoric acid activation method. Influences of different dosage of concentrated sulfuric acid, impregnation time and impregnation ratio on specific surface area was studied. The results showed that both of the dosage of concentrated sulfuric acid and impregnation time had great influence on specific surface area of GAC by phosphoric acid method. The GACs prepared under the conditions of impregnation time 15 h, dosage of concentrated sulfuric acid 6 %, impregnation ratio 2.1:1 and impregnation time 5h, dosage of concentrated sulfuric acid 3 %, impregnation ratio 2.1:1 gave the BET surface area of 2 825 and 2 811 m2/g, the total pore volume of 1.60 and 1.59 cm3/g, and butane working capacity (BWC) of 154.8 and 157.3 g/L, respectively.
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    Pyrolysis Characteristics of Hailar Lignite by Thermal Analysis Technique
    SUN Li-na, GAO Hao-jie, CHEN Hai-jun, YANG Li, ZHU Yue-zhao
    2014, 34 (1):  117-120.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.020
    Abstract ( 499 )   PDF (1164KB) ( 315 )   Save
    Based on the self-proposed integrated process for direct drying and pyrolysis (IPDDP) of carbon-based materials with high water content, the pyrolysis reaction in a nitrogen atmosphere and combustion performance in an air atmosphere of Hailar lignite was measured using thermobalance. The effects of the heating rate on pyrolysis characteristics of lignite were investigated. Also, the feasibility of this IPDDP was discussed. The results showed that lignite was dehydrated below 110 ℃ in a nitrogen atmosphere with a weight loss about 11%. In the temperature range between 110 ℃ and 690 ℃, the volatiles were removed and the pyrolysis took place, with a weight loss about 23%. Thereafter, the char from pyrolysis was transfered into carbon, with a weight loss about 10%, during the temperature up to 900 ℃. While in an air atmosphere, lignite as well as the volatiles burned between the narrow temperature range of 315 ℃ to 320 ℃. It provided a residual of about 13.7% ash. Water desorption will be postponed at higher heating rate. This enabled the co-pyrolysis of water vapor, volatiles and the char from pyrolysis. It proves the feasibility of the IPDDP, to some extent.
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    Chemical Composition of Leaf Essential Oil of Synsepalum dulcificum and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial and Antitumoral Activities in vitro
    LU Sheng-lou LU Sheng-lou, LIU Hong, CHEN Guang-ying, HAN Chang-ri, ZANG Wen-xia
    2014, 34 (1):  121-127.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.021
    Abstract ( 945 )   PDF (939KB) ( 456 )   Save
    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Synsepalum dulcificum leaf essential oil obtained by steam distillation. The in vitro antibacterial activity and antitumoral activity of this essential oil was characterized. Sixty-eight compositions were separated. Among them 44 components were identified and represented 92.14% of the total detected constituents. The major chemical compounds of leaf essential oil were spathulenol (24.194%), limonene (15.805%), diisooctyl phthalate (12.402%), dibutyl phthalate (10.326%), palmitic acid (4.865%) and linalool (2.139%). The result of the antimicrobial assay showed that the essential oil displayed varying degrees of antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, along with minimum inhibition concentration(MIC)values from 39.06 to 252.15 mg/L. In addition, the antitumoral activity using MTT assay of the leaf essential oil exhibited this oil was effective against human K562 cancer cell line in a dose dependent manner. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC50) value was 13.5 mg/L.
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    Review on Anti-tumor Polysaccharides in Mushroom
    JI Chen-feng, YUE Lei
    2014, 34 (1):  128-134.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2014.01.022
    Abstract ( 704 )   PDF (1652KB) ( 349 )   Save
    Mushrooms are recognized as functional foods and have credible nutritional and medicinal values. Polysaccharide is one of the most bioactive components in mushrooms and exhibits anti-tumor and immunostimulating activities. Numerous polysaccharides with anti-tumor activity have been extracted from a variety of mushrooms, but there are many differences in their chemical composition, structure and anti-tumor activity. This review aims to integrate the R&D progress of anti-tumor polysaccharides in mushrooms which include mushroom polysaccharides with anti-tumor activity, chemistry of mushroom polysaccharides, relationship between structure and anti-tumor activities of mushroom polysaccharides, anti-tumor activity and mechanisms of mushroom polysaccharides. And this review also looks forward to the future studies on receptors and signal transduction pathway, structure activity relationship and pharmacokinetics of polysaccharides.
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