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    28 June 2015, Volume 35 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Influences of Pore Structure and Surface Chemical Properties on Removal Performance of Formaldehyde by the Copper Loaded Activated Carbon
    ZHANG Shuang-shuang, LI Wei, ZHAO Xin, LIU Li-hua, WU Yan-jiao, LIU Shou-xin
    2015, 35 (3):  1-7.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.001
    Abstract ( 897 )   PDF (1230KB) ( 755 )   Save
    The impregnation of CuCl2 on coconut shell based activated carbon was investigated for efficient formaldehyde removals.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for morphology structure observation.Nitrogen adsorption isotherm was employed for pore structure analysis.The surface elements of activated carbon were tested by XPS.XRD was used for analyzing the crystal forms of cupric salt.Dynamic studies of formaldehyde adsorption at room temperature was carried out by adsorption performance test.The results showed that cupric salt existed in three forms,i.e.,Cu,CuCl and CuCl2.The increment of Cu loading leads to the decreasing of surface area and pore volume of activated carbon,and the increasing of average pore diameter.After modification,the surface oxygenated groups on the surface of activated carbon increased.When CuCl2 concentration was 0.5 mol/L,formaldehyde adsorption capacity(4.28 mg/g) of the modified activated carbon was 3.1 times than that of the original one(1.38 mg/g).Adsorption behavior of formaldehyde on modified activated carbons fitted Freundlich adsorption isotherm well.
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    Blends of Wheat Straw Modified with Poly(L-Lactic Acid)
    DING Liang, JIANG Li, GAO Qin-wei, XU Chen, SHANGGUAN Jia-li
    2015, 35 (3):  8-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.002
    Abstract ( 850 )   PDF (836KB) ( 583 )   Save
    The blends of PLLA/WS were prepared using poly(L-lactic acid)(PLLA) and wheat straw(WS) in N-methyl morpholine-N-oxide(NMMO)solution.WS was firstly dissolved in NMMO,then PLLA was successively dissolved in the WS solutions to get homogeneous mixture solutions.The mixtures were cast to prepare PLLA/WS blends.Differential scanning calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,thermogravimetry,and scanning electron microscopy were employed for the characterization of the blends.The results showed that PLLA and WS could form a homogeneous mixture in NMMO.A strong interaction between PLLA and WS was observed.The crystal structures were formed as the PLLA content was under 50%.With the increase of PLLA contents,the thermostability and melting points of PLAA/WS were gradually increased.The blend films possessed smooth section and micropore due to the compatibility between PLLA and WS.The biodegradable polymeric materials with different properties could be prepared through modifying the ratios of PLLA to WS.
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    Effects of Hot Filtration on Yield and Quality of Bio-oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Chinese Fir in Fluidized Bed Reactor
    ZHU Shen-jia, LIU Yun-quan, WANG Duo, YE Yue-yuan, LI Shui-rong
    2015, 35 (3):  13-19.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.003
    Abstract ( 627 )   PDF (1066KB) ( 682 )   Save
    A hot filter was added to a 1 kg/h bench-scale continuous bubbling fluidized bed system for the fast pyrolysis of Chinese fir to get bio-oils.The effects of hot filter on the yield and stability of bio-oils were studied.The results indicated that both the yields of pyrolysis oil (without hot filtration) and filtered oil (after hot filtration) increased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature,and decreased after 475 ℃,at which the maximum yields were 58.1% and 50.7%,respectively.The addition of hot filter resulted in lower oil yield (approximate 5%-10% decrease),which became worse when pyrolysis temperature increased.Compared to the pyrolysis-oil Ⅰ,the water content of filtered-oil Ⅰ increased from 13.77% to 15.83%,pH value increased from 2.18 to 2.23,and high-heating value decreased from 20.47 MJ/kg to 19.53 MJ/kg.However,it also showed significant reduction in solids contents,alkali and alkaline earth metals,and the overall decline was about 75%,which suppressed the happening of self-polymerization in bio-oils.During the aging tests,water content and kinematic viscosity of filtered-oil Ⅰ increased by 10.2% and 57.6%,but the fluctuation was less than that of pyrolysis-oil Ⅰ.GC/MS analysis of the bio-oils showed that less fluctuation in composition was observed in the filtered-oil Ⅰ. This indicated a positive impact of the hot filter on the quality of bio-oil.
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    Rapid Determination of Wood Flour Content in Wood Plastic Composites by FT-IR Combined with Multiple Linear Regression
    LAO Wan-li, LI Gai-yun, QIN Te-fu, HUANG Luo-hua
    2015, 35 (3):  20-26.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.004
    Abstract ( 954 )   PDF (993KB) ( 648 )   Save
    The Chinese fir/polypropylene(PP) composites samples were analyzed by FT-IR with KBr pellets method. The characteristic adsorption peaks of Chinese fir were assigned to 1740-1730 cm-1, 1610-1590 cm-1, 1270-1260 cm-1, 1060-1050 cm-1, and 1040-1030 cm-1. The peak of PP at 1377 cm-1 was taken as reference. Correlation analysis was performed between wood flour content and the relative intensities of different spectral peaks and the stepwise multiple linear regression was used to establish the equations. The results showed that the binary linear regression equation with I(1060-1050)/I1377 and I(1270-1260)/I1377 as variables and the ternary linear regression equation based on the variables I(1060-1050)/I1377, I(1040-1030)/I1377 and I(1270-1260)/I1377 possessed better prediction accuracy. There is a strong correlation between FT-IR-predicted wood flour content and referenced wood flour content. The coefficients of determination (Rc2) of calibration exceed 0.98, and the Rp2 of cross validation were above 0.96. The results of external validation showed that linear regression equations had good predictabilities, and the relative deviations of prediction ranged from -7.4% to -0.9%. The results also showed that the prediction accuracy of the ternary linear regression equation was slightly better than that of the binary linear regression equation.
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    Release Performance of Nitrogen from Alkaline Lignin-poly (vinyl alcohol)-urea-formaldehyde Crosslinked Film
    JIANG Wei-tong, SU Ling, YU Miao, FANG Lei, LIU Ling, XU Liang-jun, FANG Gui-zhen
    2015, 35 (3):  27-32.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.005
    Abstract ( 775 )   PDF (913KB) ( 745 )   Save
    Alkaline lignin-poly (vinyl alcohol)-urea (AL-PVA-U) film was prepared by crosslinking with formaldehyd (F). The effects of alkaline lignin and formaldehyde on nitrogen release,as well as the release mechanism,were investigated. The films were characterized by XRD and FT-IR-ATR.The result showed that the addition of alkaline lignin limited the release of nitrogen in the film and resulted in an increase of the release balance time.The fastest release rate was observed as alkaline lignin and polyvinyl alcohol as blended with 5:5 ratio,and the maximum release balance time as well as the highest accumulative release rate achieved under this condition represented 192 h and 77.73%, respectively.Proper amount of formaldehyde facilitated the crosslinking among alkaline lignin,polyvinyl alcohol and urea. The formation of linear and reticular structures restricted the release of the nitrogen in the films. Compared with the blend film,the crystallinity of the crossed alkaline lignin-polyvinyl alcohol-urea film decreased.The curve of nitrogen cumulative release rate displayed a S pattern.The correlation coefficients of Ritger-Peppas model and Quadratic polynomial model were 0.950 9 and 0.976 3,respectively.The release index (n) of Ritger-Peppas model was 0.816 7,which indicated that the release mechanism of nitrogen was the comprehensive effects of diffusion and erosion.
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    Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Diisobornyl Oxalate
    ZHANG Ping-hui, GUO Li-qun, YUAN Xiao-min, XU Shi-chao, ZHAO Zhen-dong, BI Liang-wu, LI Dong-mei
    2015, 35 (3):  33-37.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.006
    Abstract ( 617 )   PDF (703KB) ( 703 )   Save
    Diisobornyl oxalate was obtained by rearrangement,addition and esterification reactions from camphene and oxalic acid with boric anhydride as catalyst.The effects of reaction conditions such as material ratio,dosage of catalyst,reaction temperature and reaction time on the conversion of camphene and the selectivity of diisobornyl oxalate were explored.The results showed that the optimal synthetic conditions were:the mass ratio of camphene,anhydrous oxalic acid and catalyst 1.7:2:1,reaction time 96 h,and reaction temperature 55 ℃.Under these conditions,the conversion rate of camphene was 89.5% and the selectivity of diisobornyl oxalate was 95.6%.The structure of diisobornyl oxalate was characterized by IR,LCMS-IT-TOF, 1H NMR and 13C NMR.
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    Curing Reaction and Properties of Cardanol-based Epoxy Diluent/E-51 Blends
    HUO Shu-ping, WU Guo-min, CHEN Jian, LIU Gui-feng, KONG Zhen-wu
    2015, 35 (3):  38-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.007
    Abstract ( 700 )   PDF (919KB) ( 684 )   Save
    A cardanol-based epoxy (CDE) diluents with high diluting and toughening properties was synthesized from cardanol.The blends of the prepared CDE and bisphenol type epoxy resin (E-51) at different mass ratios were cured with anhydride.The influence of the CDE content on the thermodynamic properties and mechanical properties of the cured epoxy was systematically investigated.The results showed that CDE had high diluting and toughening properties to E-51.The glass transition temperature (Tg) of cured epoxy decreased gradually with the increase of the content of CDE.When the CDE content was 20%,the impact strength and tensile strength of cured epoxy reached the maximum values (19.17 kJ/m2 and 56.81 MPa,respectively) while the high bending strength was 108.8 MPa.
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    Chemical Association between Mannose Units and Lignin in Plant Cell Wall
    SHI Chao-qun, XIE Yi-min, WANG Peng
    2015, 35 (3):  43-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.008
    Abstract ( 881 )   PDF (823KB) ( 663 )   Save
    In order to elucidate the chemical association between hemicellulose and lignin in gymnosperm, the linkage between sugar units in hemicellulose and phenylpropane substructure of lignin was analyzed from the perspective of mannose. The mannan precursor D-13C6-mannose, exogenous lignin precursor coniferin, and the inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, were injected into a living ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba L.) to trace the mannose in the cell wall by 13C and meanwhile inhibit the conversion of mannose to lignin. The results indicate that the mannose units of lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC) in newly-formed xylem are labeled successfully by 13C isotope. Moreover, the metabolism of ginkgo tree has not been affected obviously by the addition of the precursors and inhibitor. The specifically 13C-enriched LCCs were isolated from the newly-formed xylem and further hydrolyzed by cellulase and hemicellulase to get enzyme-degraded LCCs (EDLCCs). The analyses of FT-IR and 13C NMR of EDLCCs indicate that the C-6 position of mannose unit in hemicellulose and α-carbon of lignin side chain is linked by benzyl ether bond.
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    Preparation of Carbon Sphere-activated Carbon Composite Materials from Microcrystalline Cellulose via Hydrothermal Carbonization
    WU Yan-jiao, LI Wei, WU Qiong, ZHAO Xin, ZHANG Shuang-shuang, LIU Shou-xin
    2015, 35 (3):  49-54.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.009
    Abstract ( 955 )   PDF (2308KB) ( 786 )   Save
    Carbon sphere-activated carbon composite materials with abundant oxygen functional groups were prepared from microcrystalline celluloses(MC) via hydrothermal carbonization by using citric acid as catalyst and activated carbons as carrier.The morphology structure,pore structure,and the species of oxygen-containing functional groups of composite materials were analyzed by SEM,N2(77K) adsorption-desorption isotherm,and FT-IR.Adsorption capacity of the materials were tested using aqueous solution (Cr3+) as model metal ions.The results showed that MC could be transformed into carbon spheres,which are loaded on the surface and interior of activated carbon.The size and quantity of the carbon spheres of the obtained composites were influenced by the carbonization parameters,such as temperature,reaction time and the concentration of the MC.Surface functional groups,including hydroxyl,carbonyl and carboxyl,were observed on the surface of the prepared composites.The carbon sphere-activated carbon composite materials presented extraordinary adsorption capacities for Cr3+ in terms of per mass,which was 0.356 mg/g.This result is approximately 5.65 times of that for activated carbon.
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    Semi-simultaneous/Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Corn Stover
    YANG De-liang, CHU Qiu-lu, LAI Chen-huan, XIE Yi-hui, LI Xin, YU Shi-yuan, YONG Qiang
    2015, 35 (3):  55-59.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.010
    Abstract ( 824 )   PDF (673KB) ( 749 )   Save
    Corn stover pretreated by green liquor was hydrolyzed for 24 h at an initial substrate concentration of 100 g/L and a fed-batch of 50 g/L substrate for 6 h and 12 h,respectively,and then simultaneously saccharified and fermented for 48 h.Ethanol with a mass concentration of 47.58 g/L and a yield with 0.42 g/g cellulose was obtained.As the corn stover was pretreated under the same condition for 72 h,and the mass concentration and the yield of ethanol were 48.57 g/L ethanol and 0.43 g/g cellulose, respectively.Compared to semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation based on pre-hydrolysis,the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were suitable for the bioconversion of pretreated corn stover at high substrate loading.
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    Depolymerization Characteristics of Cunninghamialanceolata Alkali Lignin in Subcritical Water
    LI Xiao-hong, WU Shu-bin
    2015, 35 (3):  60-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.011
    Abstract ( 923 )   PDF (929KB) ( 638 )   Save
    Hydrothermal depolymerization of Cunninghamialanceolata alkali lignin were conducted in a batch autoclave at temperatures of 250-350 ℃.The components and characteristics of hydrothermal degraded liquid products and hydrochar were investigated by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS),elemental analyzer and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).The results showed that the least residue (18.66%) was collected at 325 ℃.In addition,the relative content of phenols in liquid products was above 80%,and the types and contents of phenols were both increased with the rise of temperature.Guaiacol was the dominant phenol component,represented 17.71 mg/g at 325 ℃.With the increase of reaction temperature, reductions of hydrogen and oxygen contents were observed,while the carbon content increased.The optimum carbon and energy conversion rates at 325 ℃were 79.18% and 79.95%,respectively.The chemical structures of hydrochars were similar to alkali lignin at temperatures below 325 ℃.However,a serious carbonization of lignin was observed when the temperature was over 350 ℃.
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    Improvement and Determination of Cetane Number of the Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil by Self-ignition Point Method
    LIANG Qu, ZHOU Tao, CAO Jin-lei
    2015, 35 (3):  67-72.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.012
    Abstract ( 807 )   PDF (746KB) ( 714 )   Save
    The establishment of cetane number(CN) with simple methodology is important in direct utilization of vegetable oils as diesel fuel.By using the method of measuring self-ignition temperature on the basis of linear relation between self-ignition point and CN,the improvement and measurement of the CN of the compound biodiesel was performed by adding the CN improvers such as n-butyl nitrate(NBN),di-n-butyl oxalate(DNBO),tert-butyl hydroperoxide(TBHP),and both of compounds.The results showed that the CN of the compound biodiesel could be effectively increased by 15-25 via adding CN with the amount of 0.1%-1.0%.n-Butyl nitrate was the most effective improver in three compounds.When the addition of NBN was 0.6%,the CN of compound biodiesel increased from 27 to 50.The synergistic effect was proved by compound experiment of DNBO and TBHP,the CN of the compound biodiesel increased to 52-54 by the adding amount of 0.6% with the ratio of the proportion changing from 1:9 to 9:1.DNBO and NBN didn't have synergistic effect.Under the guidance of self-ignition point measurements and the calculative CN,the effect of improving the CN and the prediction utility of the CN were verified by the combustion situation of single cylinder diesel.It was shown that this method is feasible.
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    Variations Relationship of Abietic-type Acids under Acid Treatment
    GU Yan, CHEN Yu-xiang, ZHAO Zhen-dong, LI Dong-mei, BI Liang-wu, WANG Jing
    2015, 35 (3):  73-79.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.013
    Abstract ( 984 )   PDF (444KB) ( 649 )   Save
    Slash pine (P.elliottii) rosin and masson pine (P.massoniana) rosin were treated using different type of acids at different time.The variation relationships of abietic-type acids were analyzed through the content changes of abietic-type acids and dehydroabietic acid.The results showed that isomerization took place among palustric acid,abietic acid and neoabietic acid,and at the same time dehydrogenation and decarboxylation occurred under acid treatment.The rates of isomerization,dehydrogenation and decarboxylation were affected by the type of acid,acid strength and treating time.With the increase of acid strength,the speed of isomerization,dehydrogenation and decarboxylation increased.
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    Application of Hydrophobic Carboxymethyl Cellulose in Deinking
    BEI Jun-jie, CAO Yun-feng
    2015, 35 (3):  80-84.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.014
    Abstract ( 741 )   PDF (736KB) ( 650 )   Save
    Lauroyl chloride esterified carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC-R) was prepared by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and lauroyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine as acid binding agent and DMAc as solvent.The optimized CMC-R could be obtained as thecarboxymethyl cellulose reacted with lauroyl chloride with a ration of 1:0.4 (m/m) at 60 ℃ for 5 h.CMC-R was utilized in old news paper (ONP) deinking. The results revealed that individual application of CMC-R could improve the pulp brightness by 2.2%(ISO),and the residual ink decreased by 457.66 mm2/m2.Another increase of pulp brightness by 2.13% and reduction of residual ink by 3.18% could be realized when CMC-R and non-ionic surfactants were utilized together.
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    Adsorption Behavior and Kinetic of Creatinine on Coconut Shell Activated Carbon with Different Pore Structures
    WANG Jin-biao, JIANG Jian-chun, SUN Kang, LU Xin-cheng, XIE Xin-ping
    2015, 35 (3):  85-90.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.015
    Abstract ( 721 )   PDF (1576KB) ( 835 )   Save
    The adsorption behaviors of creatinine(CR) on coconut-shell activated carbons with different pore structures was investigated,and the relationship between BET surface area/pore size distribution and the adsorption capacity for creatinine was studied.Several kinetic models,such as pseudo-first-order,pseudo-second-order,and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models,were studied on the basis of adsorption data.Results showed that the micropores with pore size of 1-2.5 nm were beneficial for adsorption of CR.The adsorption capacity reached 104 mg/g on the coconut-shell activated carbon with average pore size 2.2 nm. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon for creatinine depended on the combination of the surface area, total pore volume and microporosity. The intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-determining step.It was found that the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model,which correlation indexes were higher than 0.99.This suggested that the adsorption of CR on activated carbon was a chemisorption process.
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    Effects of Hot-compressed Water on the Enzymatic Hydrolyzability of Papermaking Waste Wheat Straw
    HUANG Ping, ZHU Yuan-yuan, XU Yong, YONG Qiang, HUANG Li-xin, YU Shi-yuan
    2015, 35 (3):  91-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.016
    Abstract ( 713 )   PDF (3021KB) ( 723 )   Save
    Wheat straw from papermaking waste was pretreated by hot-compressed water. The test of enzymatic hydrolysis and its compositions was studied.The effects of pretreatment conditions on waste wheat straw were investigated,and the enzymatic hydrolysis yields of cellulose and xylan were examined. Results showed that chemical composition of waste wheat straw and physical structures were changed after pretreatment,and the cellulose contents and surfaces increased.This promoted the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.Enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that the temperature of pretreatment had a very significant impact on the yield.Waste wheat straw pretreated at 200 ℃ for 60min was used as the enzyme hydrolysis substrate at a concentration of 50 g/L.Under the conditions of cellulose enzyme 35 FPIU/g (of cellulose), β-glucose glycosides enzyme 25 IU/g,xylanase enzyme 120 U/g,PEG6000 2 g/L,enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 50 ℃, and reaction time 36 h,the hydrolysis yield of cellulose and xylan reached 86.29% and 74.03%,respectively.They improved 2.3 times and 2.8 times of those pretreated by 170 ℃ for 40 min.
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    Green Synthesis of Isolongifolenone
    PENG Han, YANG Li-juan, XU Xu, WANG Shi-fa
    2015, 35 (3):  97-103.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.017
    Abstract ( 770 )   PDF (1271KB) ( 759 )   Save
    Isolongifolenone was synthesized by using heavy turpentine as the starting material.Firstly,the heavy turpentine was converted to isolongifolene by isomerization reaction with BF3 (C2H5)2O as catalyst.Isolongifolenone was finally obtained from isolongifolene by allylic oxidation with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as oxidizer,Cu as catalyst and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as solvent.By investigating the influence of different react conditions on the oxidation of isolongifolene,the optimum conditions were determined as follows:the mass fraction of Cu 3% (based on the mass of isolongifolene),the mole ratio of TBHP and isolongifolene 3.5:1,the mass ratio of TBA and isolongifolene 1:1,reaction temperature 80 ℃ and reaction time 12 h.The yield of isofolenone was over 93%,and the purity was 98.75% under these conditions.
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    Optimization of Engineering Process for Bamboo Chemical Pulp Middle-stage Wastewater Treatment
    DING Lai-bao, SHI Ying-qiao, PAN Ai-xiang, HAN Shan-ming, FANG Gui-gan
    2015, 35 (3):  104-108.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.018
    Abstract ( 558 )   PDF (729KB) ( 660 )   Save
    The 35 000 m3/d bamboo pulp wastewater treatment engineering has been technically optimized in two aspects of the optimization of biological treatment system and the application of highly effective new-type coagulant.Meanwhile,the degradation laws of nitrogen and phosphorus were studied.The results showed that the hydrolysis in primary settling tank and balancing tank could promote the release of NH3-N.The addition of phosphate instead of urea into aerobic tank could be favorable for the growth of biological bacteria and improve water treatment effects.When the effluent COD from secondary sedimentation tank came to 200 mg/L or so,with a self-made high efficient coagulant (PFDAC) dosage of 1.5 kg/m3 instead of poly aluminum chloride (PAC) and PAM dosage of 5 mg/L as coagulant anionic in the system,the removal rate of COD could reach above 98% and the main indexes of water quality such as effluent COD (66~89 mg/L),color (dropped 10~30 times),total phosphorus (≤ 0.5 mg/L) completely met the new national standard GB3544—2008 after flotation.
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    Analysis of Volatile Components in Cananga Oil by GC-TOF MS
    XU Yang-bin, WANG Kai, ZHANG Hong, HONG Liu, LI Zhi-yu, LIU Qiang
    2015, 35 (3):  109-113.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.019
    Abstract ( 735 )   PDF (598KB) ( 630 )   Save
    The volatile components of cananga oil were analyzed by using of gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS).The peak area normalization method was used to calculate the content of each component.With the mass spectrometry library search,72 compounds which accounted for 93.33% in the volatile components of cananga oil were identified by using MS database and retention index of ESO.The main componments were benzyl benzoate (18.359%),α-linalool (16.186%),trans-caryophyllene (10.412%),α-cadinol (5.651%),δ-cadinene (5.241%),geranyl acetate (3.247%),γ-muurolene (2.969%).Among 72 compounds,57 components were terpenoids and their derivatives,which account for 72.33% in the volatile components of Cananga oil.
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    Paclitaxel and 10-DAB Produced by Liquid Fermentation with Taxus chinensis var.mairei Mycorrhizal Fungus
    GONG Xue-yuan, DU Ya-tian, LIU Jiao, ZHANG Xiang-yu
    2015, 35 (3):  114-120.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.020
    Abstract ( 749 )   PDF (1000KB) ( 693 )   Save
    To screen high-yield strains which could produce paclitaxel and 10-deacetylbaccation Ⅲ(10-DAB) from T.chinensis var.mairei mycorrhizal fungus,21 strains were separated, obtained and carried on liquid fermentation culture.The detection results of TLC,HPLC,and LC-MS show that 10 strains among those possess the ability to produce paclitaxel and taxane,and 10-DAB contents of 4 strains are 260.05, 92.88,393.27 and 70.52 μg/L,respectively.The paclitaxel contents of 6 strains are 434.94,1 242.19,200.65,360.77,317.90 and 29.82 μg/L among these 10 strains.These results indicate that the mycorrhizal fungus has the ability to synthesize paxlitaxel and taxanes, but each of the synthesized compounds have the difference. It is the different kinds of mycorrhizal that may participate in the taxol biosynthesis, and high contents of taxol result form collaborative actions. And there is the paclitaxel potential to produce in fermentation culture of the high-yield strains.
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    Chemical Constituents of n-Butanol-insoluble Portion from Parochetus communis Buch.Extract
    ZHANG Ni, MU Shu-zhen, WANG Jia-sheng, KONG Qi, YU Zheng-wen
    2015, 35 (3):  121-124.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.021
    Abstract ( 852 )   PDF (526KB) ( 846 )   Save
    The chemical constituents of n-butanol-insoluble portion of Parochetus communis Buch extract were studied by acetylation.The aerial part of P.communis was extracted by 75% ethanol and the ethanol extract was suspended in distilled water and successively extracted by petroleum ether,ethyl acetate,and n-butanol.The insoluble portion of n-butanol extract was partly acetylated,then various column chromatographic methods were used for the isolation and purification.The chemical structures of compounds were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral date.Six compounds were isolated from n-butanol-insoluble portion of P.communis Buch and identified as β-sitosterol,1-triacontanol,medicarpin and pratol.All compounds were isolated from the medical plant for the first time.In addition,the solubility of n-butanol-insoluble portion was increased and the polarity of the chemical composition was decreased by acetylation.This method provides a new reference for the separation of high-polar compounds in other plant.
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    Research Advance of Chitin Nano-fibers Preparation by Surface Charging
    ZHANG Yan, FAN Yi-min, YU Shi-yuan
    2015, 35 (3):  125-132.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.022
    Abstract ( 914 )   PDF (1956KB) ( 736 )   Save
    This review mainly illustrates the preparation of chitin nano-fibers by surface anionization and cationization at C2 and C6 accompanied with the subsequent mechanical treatment.A high density of negative charge was formed on the chitin molecules in alkaline aqueous solution after the C6 hydroxyl groups selectively converted into carboxyl groups by TEMPO-mediated oxidation.The chitin crystals could be further dispersed into whiskers/fibers at nano-level.In another method,deacetylation partially occurred at the C2 position of chitin and it caused the exposed NH2 formed positive charge in the acidic condition.The individual nano-fibers were achieved by simple mechanical dispersion with the driving force of electrostatic repulsion among the crystals.
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    Advances in Selective Hydrogenation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural into 2,5-Dimethylfuran
    HU Lei, WU Zhen, XU Jia-xing, SUN Yong, LIN Lu, XU Ning, DAI Ben-lin
    2015, 35 (3):  133-138.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.023
    Abstract ( 1119 )   PDF (758KB) ( 1061 )   Save
    The renewable liquid fuel,2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF),which can be produced by the selective hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) with high energy density,high boiling point,high octane number,and water insolubility,has attracted more attention all over the world.According to its excellent physicochemical properties,the momentous application values,and the broad market prospects,the various catalytic systems and the latest research progress for the selective hydrogenation of HMF into DMF from the point of the diversity of hydrogen donors such as molecular hydrogen,formic acid,alcohols,and water are systematically summarized. The future research trends are prospected to offer the valuable ideas and advices for the selective hydrogenation of HMF and provide the theoretical references and technical supports for the industrial production and practical application of DMF.
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    Application of Molecular Simulation Methodology in Activated Carbon Absorption Properties
    WANG Guo-dong, JIANG Jian-chun, SUN Kang
    2015, 35 (3):  139-144.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2015.03.024
    Abstract ( 872 )   PDF (739KB) ( 692 )   Save
    Molecular simulation,a novel technology based on scientific computational method,is used in the research of absorption performance of activated carbon.The relation of molecular simulation and traditional adsorption was introduced. The application of grand canonical Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and density functional theory (DFT) in the structure analysis of activated carbon was reviewed in this article.The recent progress of designing specific activated carbon adsorbent,predicting the adsorption efficiency,and guiding the surface modification by molecular simulation were reviewed,too.Due to few research correlating the microscopic structure with macroscopic properties,recent simulation works of pore structure for activated carbon were in the stage of theoretical level.The technologies of molecular simulation is an important development trend in the field of activated carbon. This has advantages in simulating the microscopic structure.
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