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    25 February 2017, Volume 37 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Review on Preparation Technology of Activated Carbon and Its Application
    JIANG Jianchun, SUN Kang
    2017, 37 (1):  1-13.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.001
    Abstract ( 1284 )   PDF (2184KB) ( 1085 )   Save
    The domestic and international research progress of activated carbon production and application status in recent twenty years were reviewed. The development of chemical activation and physical activation of activated carbon were summarized, and the latest breakthrough on the integrated production process of physical and chemical activation was introduced. The pollution-free, low consumption and pretreatment production technology of activated carbon industrial production and the regeneration production technology of adsorption-saturated activated carbon were briefly described. Meanwhile, the research progresses of its application on gas adsorption, liquid adsorption and catalyst carrier were discussed, too. The existing problems of production and application technology of activated carbon were put forward, the development of activated carbon industry outlet and solutions were clarified, and the future research directions of activated carbon were further pointed out.
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    Application of Atomic Force Microscope in Cellulosic Ivestigation
    YANG Haiyan, ZHENG Zhifeng, WANG Kun, MA Jianfeng, SHI Zhengjun
    2017, 37 (1):  14-20.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.002
    Abstract ( 467 )   PDF (2469KB) ( 342 )   Save
    Atomic force microscope (AFM) plays an important role in the surface imaging technologies. The basic principle of AFM is the measurement of the force between a sharp tip and sample surface. In order to profile the structure characteristics of biopolymers, AFM can work under contact mode, non-contact mode and tapping mode, respectively. High-resolution images of cellulose from AFM show that cellobiose is the repeat unit of cellulose, and triclinic and monoclinic crystal systems naturally exist in the same microfibril of cellulose with a displacement of adjacent chains by a quarter of cellobiose units. In cell wall, fibers contact with each other by hemicelluloses to form a network. However, the structure of fiber ranges with variety of plants and cell wall region. Furthermore, AFM promotes the application research on cellulose. The results from AFM images are important for improving of pulp properties, paper conservation, and exploration of reaction mechanism.
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    Study and Application of Rapid Evaluation Model of Oleoresin Content
    ZHAO Zhendong, LI Dongmei, ZHANG Chunling, BI Liangwu, WANG Jing, GU Yan, CHEN Yuxiang
    2017, 37 (1):  21-26.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.003
    Abstract ( 467 )   PDF (1007KB) ( 307 )   Save
    Based on investigation of the actual production situation, an apparatus was designed and produced for quick and effective analysis of oleoresin content during production and trade. A simple and quick evaluation model of oleoresin content was established by applying the apparatus. In order to adapt for the climate features of main oleoresin production season and regions in China, two quantitative relationships between oleoresin content (%) and volume (mL) of oleoresin solution were obtained as equations as y25=4.248x-216.3 and y30=4.211x-215.3 at 25℃ and 30℃, respectively. As a result for applying the quick evaluation models and the related determination method of the oleoresin content, a national standard was established as "Evaluation method for adulterated oleoresin" to provide technical supports for standardizing the industry order, battling counterfeit and shoddy products, and rapid on-site evaluation of oleoresin.
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    Preparation of Chitosan/Cellulose Aerogel Beads and Its Formaldehyde Gas Adsorption Performance
    LIU Zhiming, WU Peng
    2017, 37 (1):  27-35.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.004
    Abstract ( 765 )   PDF (1970KB) ( 669 )   Save
    Cellulose aerogel beads(CAB) and chitosan/cellulose aerogel beads(CCAB) were prepared through droplet-suspension gelation processing,and then the acid treated CAB(CAB-A) and acid treated CCAB(CCAB-A) were obtained through acetic acid post-processing from CAB and CCAB. Morphologies,chemical states,element distributions and pore structures of the aerogel beads were characterized and analyzed by SEM,FT-IR,XPS and BET. Meanwhile,formaldehyde adsorption performances of the aerogel beads were measured by gaseous formaldehyde adsorption test. The results showed that the prepared aerogels had uniform spherical shape,and the average particle sizes of CAB, CAB-A,CCAB and CCAB-A were (2.67±0.01), (2.47±0.02), (2.79±0.05) and (3.34±0.05) mm, respectively. Chitosan molecules were introduced into the cellulose matrix and no significant chemical changes occurred during the preparation. In addition,chitosan molecules by acid treatment were renewably distributed and self-assembled in the network of cellulose gel, formed more intensive aerogel network structure,and provided abundant pore structure with the specific surface area and mesoporous volume of CCAB-A of 1 350.7 m2/g and 4.511 cm3/g,respectively. Thus the adsorbing capacity of the composite aerogel beads reached up to 1.99 mmol/g after adsorption for 1 h which was far greater than that by coconut shell activated carbon material with same dosage (0.39 mmol/g). The chemical combination of azomethine and schiff base was formed between primary amine and formaldehyde molecule in the aerogel beads.
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    Catalytic Transformation and Application of 3-Carene
    WANG Jing, YANG Xuebing, ZHAO Zhendong, XU Shichao, GU Yan, LU Yanju
    2017, 37 (1):  36-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.005
    Abstract ( 539 )   PDF (976KB) ( 310 )   Save
    With the purpose of establishing an application method, studies on the catalytic transformation of 3-carene were carried out. The results indicated that metal catalysts, especially the platinum, had excellent ability to promote the ring opening and dehydrogenation of three-membered ring in 3-carene. With platinum-catalysis, the selectivity of dehydrogenation product cymene exceeded 90% and the mass ratio of m-cymene to p-cymene was nearly 7:2. The ring opening and dehydrogenation of 3-carene could be similarly catalyzed by molecular sieves. However, with the rising of temperature, the dehydrogenation product p-cymene would further be cracked to aromatics like toluene. Molecular sieves ZSM-5 showed a prominent activity in promoting this reaction. On the basis of these results, a continuous process of preparation of toluene and m-cymene from 3-carene was established by using platinum and ZSM-5 as a kind of composite catalyst. The conversion rate of raw material was nearly 100% and the yield of all products was more than 85%. The yield and purity of one of the final products toluene were 25% and 99%, respectively. While m-cymene were 46% and 95%, respectively, with reaction conditions at the volume ratio of Pt/Al2O3 to ZSM-5 1:1 and 280℃.
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    Pyrolytic Dehydration Reactions of β-D-Glucopyranose Catalyzed by Phosphoric Acid Using Density Functional Theory
    HU Bin, LU Qiang, JIANG Xiaoyan, ZHANG Zhenxi, DONG Changqing
    2017, 37 (1):  43-53.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.006
    Abstract ( 588 )   PDF (1649KB) ( 372 )   Save
    In order to investigate the catalytic mechanism that the dehydration reactions will be promoted by phosphoric acid in pyrolysis process, β-D-glucopyranose is selected as the model compound of cellulose, and the mechanism of pyrolytic dehydration reactions catalyzed by phosphoric acid is investigated using density functional theory method. The results indicate that during catalytic pyrolysis process, β-D-glucopyranose and phosphoric acid will interact to form several possible reaction complexes through hydrogen bonds. Different reaction complexes can initiate different 1,2-dehydration and 1,3-dehydration reactions of β-D-glucopyranose. Compared with the non-catalytic process, the activation energies of dehydration reactions decrease greatly in the phosphoric acid catalyzed process. The activation energies decrease by 79-129 kJ/mol for the eight 1,2-dehydration reactions, and 28~60 kJ/mol for the two 1,3-dehydration reactions. In addition, 1,2-dehydration is easier to occur than 1,3-dehydration in the catalytic process. And the 1,2-dehydration at 4-OH+3-H, 1-OH+2-H and 3-OH+2-H/4-H sites are predominant in the catalytic pyrolysis process.
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    Synthesis and Biological Activities of Perillaldehyde-based Schiff Base-(thio) urea Compounds
    MA Yuan, DUAN Wengui, LIN Guishan, LIU Luzhi, HUANG Zhengsong, LEI Fuhou
    2017, 37 (1):  54-62.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.007
    Abstract ( 578 )   PDF (864KB) ( 357 )   Save
    Thirteen novel perillaldehyde-based Schiff base-(thio)urea compounds (5a-5m) were designed and synthesized by using perillaldehyde as starting material. Their structures were analyzed and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and ESI-MS. The results of preliminary bioassay showed that, at the mass concentration of 50 mg/L, the inhibition rate of target compound 5f (R=p-FAr) against Physalospora piricola was 90.0% (close to that of the positive control azoxystrobin), and the inhibition rate of target compound 5d (R=Ar) against Alternaria solani was 91.8% (close to that of the positive control azoxystrobin). Besides, at the mass concentration of 100 mg/L, the target compounds 5c (R=cyclopentyl), 5i (R=p-CH3Ar) and 5a (R=CH3) exhibited 77.6%, 75.3% and 67.4% inhibition against the growth of rape (Brassica campestris) root, respectively (greater than positive control flumioxazin). Furthermore, substituted phenyl thioureas showed better antifungal and herbicidal activities than substituted phenyl ureas.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Phenolic Foams Modified by Lignin-based Polyurethane Prepolymers
    BO Caiying, HU Lihong, YANG Xiaohui, ZHENG Minrui, ZHANG Meng, ZHOU Yonghong
    2017, 37 (1):  63-72.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.008
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (914KB) ( 324 )   Save
    Lignin was liquefied with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a solvent-free system and then directly used with suitable PEG as a co-monomer and co-solvent to prepare liquefied lignins (LLs)-based polyurethane prepolymers (LLPUPs). The structural changes that lignin undergoes after liquefaction were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the hydroxyl number of LL is 177-286 mg/g and decreases with the increasing of molecular mass of PEG. The structures of LLPUPs were characterized by FT-IR. Then, phenolic foams (PFs) modified with different contents of LLPUPs were prepared. Morphological properties, mechanical properties and thermal stability of PFs were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), universal test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Results show that uniform cells can be prepared by incorporating 9% LLPUP1 and LLPUP2 into the network. The addition of LLPUPs into foam formulations improves the compressive strength and specific compressive strength of PFs, and the highest specific compressive strength is obtained by adding 9% LLPUP2 (4.44(Pa·m3)/g). Appropriate levels of LLPUPs could improve the specific flexural strength of PFs, and the highest specific flexural strength is obtained by adding 9% LLPUP1 (8.23(Pa·m3)/g). PFs modified with different contents of LLPUPs show similar thermal resistance as pristine foam.
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    Analysis of Heat Transfer Process of Liner Type Double Heated Biomass Pyrolysis Reactor
    LI Sanping, SUN Xue, WANG Shuyang
    2017, 37 (1):  73-80.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.009
    Abstract ( 460 )   PDF (1354KB) ( 356 )   Save
    Based on the analysis of heat transfer process of liner type double heated biomass pyrolysis reactor designed by the author, the heat mathematical models of reactor wall's conduction heat transfer, heat transfer among particles and two-dimensional convective heat transfer were established according to the reactor's complex internal heat transfer characteristics. This model contained a variety of heat transfer methods such as heat transfer between thermal bed material and biomass powder, heat convection of biomass powder and heat carrier gas, radiation heat transfer from the wall to biomass powder and bed material, etc. Finally, the heat transfer model was determined by simulation analysis. The simulation results show that the coupling simulation model can meet the requirement of rapid pyrolysis of biomass particles, and the average temperature of outlet gas phase is about 720 K.
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    Antibacterial Activity of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Polyprenols Nanoemulsion in Combination with Antibiotics
    TAO Ran, WANG Chengzhang, YE Jianzhong, ZHOU Hao, CHEN Hongxia
    2017, 37 (1):  81-86.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.010
    Abstract ( 559 )   PDF (831KB) ( 314 )   Save
    The synergistic antibacterial effects of Ginkgo biloba leaves polyprenols nanoemulsion (GBP) combined with five types of antibiotics,i.e., ampicillin (A), ciprofloxacin (C), gentamicin sulfate(G), erythromycin(E), and polymyxin B sulfate (P), were determined through analyzing the average diameter of the inhibition halos, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index and the time-killing curves under sub-MIC conditions. The results showed that the antibacterial effect of polyprenols nanoemulsion combined with the antibiotics enhanced with the increase of the average diameter of polyprenols nanoemulsion. The antibacterial effect of polyprenols could be improved by nanoemulsion. The polyprenol combined with gentamicin sulfate had synergistic antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus with the FIC index of 0.5, the diameter of the inhibition halos of (25.8±0.1)mm, and the MIC value of 33.0 mg/L. The time-killing curves showed that the antibacterial effect and the antibacterial time could be increased after polyprenols mixed with gentamicin sulfate.
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    Preparation of Activated Carbon by Steam Re-activation for Ionic Liquid Electrolyte Supercapacitors
    CHEN Lijing, ZUO Songlin, ZHANG Qiuhong, CHEN Jixi, WANG Yongfang
    2017, 37 (1):  87-93.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.011
    Abstract ( 618 )   PDF (1558KB) ( 504 )   Save
    In order to improve the pore structure and electrochemical performance of commcercially available activated carbons, the coal-based activated carbon(CAC), coconut shell-based activated carbon(CSAC) and bamboo-based activated carbons(BAC) were chosen for the steam re-activated. The pore structure and electrochemical performance of the activated carbons were characterized by using nitrogen adsorption, galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS). The effects of the re-activation parameters of the activation temperature and dosage of steam on the pore structure and electrochemical properties of activated carbons were investigated. The results showed that the steam re-activation could significantly improve the development of pore structure, especially the mesopores, and the adsorption capacity of iodine and methylene blue as well as the electrochemical performance. The properties of coconut shell-based activated carbon was significantly improved by the re-activation compared with other activated carbons. After re-activation, the specific capacitance of the coconut shell-based activated carbon could reach 106 F/g, which was 2.5 times of the pristine activated carbon.
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    HPLC-MS Analysis of Antioxidant Components from Rhus verniciflua Stokes Wood Powder
    CHEN Hongxia, WANG Chengzhang, ZHOU Hao, TAO Ran, YE Jianzhong
    2017, 37 (1):  94-100.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.012
    Abstract ( 514 )   PDF (824KB) ( 289 )   Save
    The ethanol extract from Rhus verniciflua Stokes wood powder was partitioned with different polarity solvents to obtain petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, n-butylalcohol fraction and water fraction. The DPPH·, ABTS· and OH· scavenging activities of the four fractions were evaluated. The results showed that the extraction yield of ethyl acetate was the highest (60.1%) and its scavenging activities of DPPH·, ABTS· and OH· were the strangest with the IC50 of 19.9, 29.74 and 37.95 mg/L, respectively. Twelve compounds in ethyl acetate fraction were identified by HPLC-MS, including six phenolic acids, i.e., ethoxy-3-hydroxy benzoic acid(1), gallic acid(2), 3,4-dihydroxy almond acid(3), gallic acid cetyl ester(4), protocatechuic acid(5) and ethyl gallate(7) and six flavonoids, i.e., fustin(6), 3,4',7-trihydroxy-flavanonol(9), fisetin(13), sulfuretin(14), butin(15) and 3,7-dihydroxy flavanone-4'-rhamnose(16).
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    Corrosion Inhibition of Steel in Glycolic Acid Solution by Cassava Starch Grafted Copolymer
    LI Xianghong, DENG Shuduan, LI Yunxian, LIU Jianxiang
    2017, 37 (1):  101-108.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.013
    Abstract ( 445 )   PDF (1227KB) ( 283 )   Save
    Cassava starch grafted copolymer (CSGC) was synthesized via the chemical modification of cassava starch (CS) by grafting the monomer of acryl amide. The inhibition effect of CSGC on the corrosion of cold rolled steel (CRS) in glycolic acid was studied by weight loss method and electrochemical techniques. The results showed that CSGC could effectively retard the corrosion of cold rolled steel in glycolic acid solution. Inhibition efficiency was increased with the rise of dosage of CSGC. Meanwhile, it was decreased with the increasing of temperature and prolonging immersion time. The inhibition concentration, the maxima inhibition efficiency is found at 0.3 mol/L HOCH2COOH. The efficiency rose firstly. The inhibition efficiency was 92.1% as the steel were treated by 100 mg/L CSGC at 20℃ in 0.3 mol/L glycolic acid and it could also reach 89.1% even when the immersion time is prolonged to 72 h. The adsorption of CSGC on CRS surface in 0.3 mol/L glycolic acid at 20-50℃ obeyed the Langmuir isotherm with the adsorption enthalpy (ΔH) of -23.8 kJ/mol, the adsorption free energy (ΔG) was -28.3 kJ/mol to -28.9 kJ/mol and the adsorption entropy (ΔS) was about 15.4-16.8 J/(mol·K). The adsorption of CSGC on steel surface in glycolic acid was the mixed adsorption of physical and chemical adsorption. Also, it was an exothermic process accompanied with the increase of entropy. CSGC was considered as a mixed-type inhibitor via geometric blocking effect. Nyquist spectra exhibited one large capacitive loop followed by a small inductive loop at low frequencies. The charge transfer resistance significantly increased with the addition of CSGC, while interfacial double layer capacitance decreased.
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    Synthesis and Properties of Carbon Quantum Dots from Larch via Hydrothermal Carbonization
    GUO Xuan, MO Wenxuan, LIU Xuliang, CHEN Wenkun, LI Xiaofei, LIU Shouxin
    2017, 37 (1):  109-115.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.014
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (1337KB) ( 448 )   Save
    Water soluble carbon quantum dots (CND) emitting green photoluminescence were synthesized by hydrothermal carbonization method (220℃) using larch as carbon source and deionized water as solvent. The particle size distribution, structure and optical properties of CND were characterized by transmission electron microscope(TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), ultraviolet spectrophotometer and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the obtained CND particles were uniform spherical with diameter of 20.35 nm and ordered lattice on surface. CND mainly contained C, O, N elements with -OH, C=O and C-O functional groups on the surface and the CNDs were formed with oxygen-containing group and aromatic ring structure. CND samples had a weaken absorption at 271 nm in the ultraviolet absorption spectrum and exhibited excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence with the maximum emission and excitation at 350 and 440 nm. And the photoluminescence intensity was pH-dependent. The fluorescence intensity reduced and solution color became darker with the increasing of pH value of CND solution. TiO2/CND composite exhibited high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of tetracycline, and 93.6% degradation could be achieved after 3 h.
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    Optimization of Extraction Technology of Dietary Fiber from Olive Pomace and Its Physicochemical Characteristics
    DING Shasha, HUANG Lixin, ZHANG Caihong, XIE Pujun, ZHANG Qiong, DENG Yejun
    2017, 37 (1):  116-122.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.015
    Abstract ( 493 )   PDF (1226KB) ( 344 )   Save
    Using olive pomace as the raw material, the alkali method was adopted to extract soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and its physicochemical properties were also studied. The extraction conditions of IDF and SDF were optimized through orthogonal test based on single factor test. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were concentration of NaOH 8%, the extraction temperature of 80℃, the extraction time 80 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 15:1(mL:g). Under this conditions, the yields of SDF and IDF were 28.74% and 52.39%, respectively. The results of physicochemical properties showed that the water holding capacity,swelling capacity and oil holding capacity of IDF were 3.38 g/g, 2.20 mL/g, 1.91 g/g, respectively. The water holding capacity, swelling capacity and oil holding capacity of SDF were 5.05g/g, 4.78 mL/g and 4.25 g/g, respectively. The glucose dialysis retardation index of SDF, IDF and defatted pomace were 13.22%,8.55% and 4.38%, respectively, by the dialysis for 90 min. The results of scanning electron microscope showed that IDF had looser morphology and more cavities and cracks, and SDF had smaller particle size and more cavities after alkali extraction.
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    Effect of Ethylene Glycol/Ethylene Carbonate Pretreatment on Components and Structure of Coconut Fiber
    ZHU Wanying, LI Lifen, HU Yingcheng
    2017, 37 (1):  123-128.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.016
    Abstract ( 565 )   PDF (1366KB) ( 298 )   Save
    The component separation of coconut fiber by different mole ratio of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethylene carbonate (EC) with coconut fiber as raw material was studied at a low temperature of 90℃ in present study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD), gel permeation chromatography(GPC) and thermogravimetry(TG) were used to analyze the isolated pretreated coconut fiber and regenerated lignin. The results showed the delignification rate was negative as the ethylene carbonate was individually applied; when the mole ratio of EG and EC was used by 4:1, the maximal delignification rate was realized, represented 49.87%. It meant that the EG/EC could achieve the delignification pretreatment at a lower temperature. It was found that the isolated cellulose content by EG and EG/EC was increased and meanwhile, the corresponding hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased. Besides, the cellulose crystalline structure was not destroyed, and the lignin was typical p-hydroxy-guaiacyl-syringyl(HGS) lignin.
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    Optimization of Cooking Conditions for Tobacco Stem Pulping Using an Alkali-oxygen Process
    ZHAO Jintao, CHEN Keli, LIU Weijuan, TAO Wenmei
    2017, 37 (1):  129-134.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.017
    Abstract ( 449 )   PDF (1028KB) ( 376 )   Save
    The alkali-oxygen pulping for tobacco stem were optimized in present study. Based on the results of single factor screening experiments, the impacts of alkali dosage, pulping temperature and holding time on screened pulp yield were analyzed by using the Box-Behnken experimental design and the response surface methodology. The results showed that the pulp yield was significantly affected by the alkali dosage and cooking temperature. The optimum pulping was realized as the tobacco stem was treated by 15.5% alkali dosage (on basis of tobacco stem mass) at 75℃ for 45 min. The screened pulp yield of tobacco stem alkali-oxygen pulping was 29.35% under these conditions, which was closed to the predictive value. By contrasting the microscopic structure of fibers of alkali-oxygen tobacco stem pulp and mechanical one, it was found that the former was well fibrillated, smoother, thinner and longer fibers with tapered ends were observed. In addition, much more non-fibrous cells were involved in the cooked tobacco stem pulp.
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    Analysis of Volatile Constituents in Tectona grandis L.F. Before and After Irradiation by HS-SPME-GC-MS
    WEN Ruizhi, ZENG Dong, HUANG Zizhi, MA Qiang, WANG Qiong, HU Yunchu
    2017, 37 (1):  135-140.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.018
    Abstract ( 495 )   PDF (695KB) ( 305 )   Save
    Headspace solid-phase micro-extraction(HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) technology was used to analyze the volatile constituents in original and irradiated Tectona grandis L.F.. The results showed that 80 kinds of volatile constituents were identified. There were 57 volatile constituents in T. grandis without irradiation and 53 volatile constituents in T. grandis after irradiation. They included hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols, esters, aldehydes, ketone, anthraquinone and amine. After irradiation, the ketone in the volatile constituents disappeared, the content of alcohols decreased to 7.498% from 12.586% and the species decreased to 3 from 6, and the aldehydes increased to 3.653% from 0.404% with the species of 5 from 3. The major volatile constituents before irradiation were 2-methyl-anthracenedione(18.443%), 2-N-methyl-naphthalenamine(14.781%), phthalic acid-isobutyl octyl ester(9.567%), 1,2,3-trimethyl-4-propenyl-(E)-naphthalene(7.513%), τ-cadinol(4.684%), α-cadinol(3.583%), cedrol(3.576%) and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-butyl 2-methylpropyl ester(3.213%), respectively. After irradiation, the α-cadinol and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-butyl 2-methylpropyl ester disappeared, the 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-butyl cyclohexyl ester appeared with the content of 3.070%, the content of phthalic acid-isobutyl octyl ester increased by 2.22 percentage points, and the contents of others changed little. The alcohol volatile components might be oxidized to the aldehydes volatile components by irradiation. The aldehydes contains the chromophoric group of -CHO, and the alcohols contains the auxochrome group of -OH, and the significant increase of the constituents after irradiation contains the chromophoric group of -COO-. The hydroxyl, aldehyde group and ester group might play an important role in the T.grandis photo-discoloration, but to well understand the the mechanism of photo-discoloration, further studies were needed.
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    Chemical Components Analysis of the Volatile Oil of Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stapf from Different Regions
    OUYANG Ting, YANG Qiongliang, YAN Hong, ZHONG Lifeng, YANG Renyi
    2017, 37 (1):  141-148.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.019
    Abstract ( 542 )   PDF (793KB) ( 338 )   Save
    The GC-MS technique was applied to analyze the volatile oil extracted by steam distillation from Cymbopogon citrates(DC.) Stapf that came from five different regions, and the chemical components of the volatile oil in different samples were compared. The results showed that in all five samples tested, the content of volatile oil in leaves was the highest, followed by the whole plant and then the stem. The types and contents of volatile components in C. citrates from different regions were different. The volatile oils in the whole plant from Hunan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hainan and Fujian were identified as 36, 30, 37, 22, 33 species components, respectively, and the volatile oils in the leaves were identified as 25, 24, 32, 27, 39 species components, respectively. The main constituents were identified as E-citral, Z-citral, β-myrcene and geraniol, etc. The volatile oil and whole plant has the highest amount of citral (about 70%-85%), with E-citral of 40.86%-51.15% and Z-citral of 31.01%-36.46%. The contents of β-myrcene and geraniol were 1.94%-15.43% and 1.61%-4.89%, respectively. The components of volatile oil in whole plant and leaves were mainly oxygenated monoterpenes (81.91%-93.04%) and with the characteristics of localization.
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    Chemical Constituents of Polygala sibirica L. var. megalopha Fr.
    YU Xiaohong, LI Panpan, GENG Yuanyuan, HUANG Yanjie, HUA Yan
    2017, 37 (1):  149-154.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2017.01.020
    Abstract ( 496 )   PDF (720KB) ( 387 )   Save
    Twelve compounds were isolated from the Polygala sibirica L.var. megalopha Fr. On the basis of the physico-chemical properties and spectral data, they were identified as syringaldehyde(1), 4-hydroxy-3, 5-dimethoxyacetophenone(2), evofolin-A(3), salicylic acid(4), trans-sinapic acid methyl ester(5), 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid methyl ester(6), 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid(7), 5-hydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxy-flavone(8), sinapylalcohol-4-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside(9),(±)-syringaresinol(10),(+)-medioresinol(11),(±)-pinoresinol(12). All compounds except 4 were isolated from P.sibirica L. for the first time.
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