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    28 December 2022, Volume 42 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Separation and Identification of Aqueous Extracts of Cinnamomum longe-paniculatum Leaves and Their Anti-hepatocellular-cancer Activity
    Wenjuan ZHOU, Yuanwang QIU, Jiayan BEI, Yuzhou WANG, Shiqi RUAN, Lin NI
    2022, 42 (6):  1-10.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.001
    Abstract ( 146 )   HTML ( 338 )   PDF (699KB) ( 254 )   Save

    This chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of leaves of Cinnamomum longepaniculatum(Gamble) N. Chao ex H.W.Li were studied. Twenty-four compounds were isolated and purified by macroporous resin, PRP-512A resin, Sephadex LH-20, and etc. The structures of the compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods of UV, MS and NMR as 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-coumarin(1), isofraxidin(2), dimethylmatairesinol(3), (+)-episesaminone(4), horsfieldin(5), (+)-epipinoresinol(6), (+)-pinoresinol(7), (+)-pinoresinol monomethyl ether(8), (+)-de-O-methylmagnolin(9), phillyrin(10), (2R, 3S)-4'-hydroxy-5, 7, 3'-trimethoxyflavan-3-ol(11), (2S, 3S)-4'-hydroxy-5, 7, 3'-trimethoxyflavan-3-ol(12), quercetin(13), loliolide(14), 2, 6-dimethoxy-1, 4-benzoquinone(15), pyrocatechol(16), vanillic acid(17), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol(18), dihydroconifery alcohol(19), 3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hedroxyphenylpropynol(20), 2-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-one(21), methyl syringate(22), 1-(4-ethylphenyl)-1, 2-ethanediol(23), p-hydroxyacetophenone(24). Compounds 2, 5-6, 9-12, 14-16 and 18-24 were all isolated from Cinnamomum for the first time. The results of anti-hepatocellular-activity showed that compounds 2, 5 and 13 had moderate inhibitory activity effects on human liver cancer(HepG2) cells, with the half inhibitory concentrations(IC50) values of 33.43, 107.40, and 71.43 μmol/L, respectively. Among them, the anti-hepatocellular-activity of compound 5 was reported for the first time. Compounds 2 and 13 belong to coumarins and flavonoids, which have good application prospects in the research of anti-tumor drugs.

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    Preparation and Properties of Lignocellulosic Nanofibrils Obtained by Polycarboxylic Acid Pretreatments
    Huiyang BIAN, Sheng DUAN, Jin WU, Liulian HUANG, Shuangquan YAO, Hongqi DAI
    2022, 42 (6):  11-16.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.002
    Abstract ( 212 )   HTML ( 74 )   PDF (4434KB) ( 287 )   Save

    Three kinds of lignocellulosic nanofibrils(LCNF) were prepared from miscanthus straw fiber with the treatment using oxalic acid, maleic acid and citric acid under the condition of high-pressure homogenization. The performances of LCNF were characterized by cold field emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM), transmission scanning electron microscope(TEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) analyzer and thermogravimetric(TG) analyzer. The results showed that polycarboxylic acid pretreatment effectively promoted fiber swelling and weaken the bonding force between fibrils, which was beneficial for the dissociation of microfibrils during the high-pressure homogenization process. The acidity became stronger and the fiber hydrolyzed in the pretreatment process was more intensive when the pKa value of carboxylic acid was smaller, resulting in more uniform size of LCNF. Oxalic acid had the minimum pKa value of 1.25 among there polycarboxylic acids, and the minimum average width of the corresponding prepared LCNF was approximately 15.3 nm. Compared with the raw material of miscanthus straw fiber, high-pressure homogenization could weaken the hydrogen bond occurring in microfibrils, which destroyed partial crystalline area and decreased the crystallinity of LCNF. The crystallinity of O-LCNF, M-LCNF and C-LCNF prepared from oxalic acid, maleic acid and citric acid system was 50.4%, 48.2% and 50.0%, respectively. Under the oxalic acid pretreatment system, the obtained(O-LCNF) exhibited the best thermal stability with the maximum weight loss rate temperature of 353.2 ℃.

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    Preparation and Properties of Lignin-removed Woods/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Composites
    Fucheng XU, Mei LI, Jianling XIA, Lina XU, Haiyang DING, Shouhai LI
    2022, 42 (6):  17-23.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.003
    Abstract ( 197 )   HTML ( 56 )   PDF (524KB) ( 212 )   Save

    The delignified wood(DW) was impregnated by methyl methacrylate(MMA) to obtain lignin-removed wood/poly(methyl methacrylate)(DW/PMMA) composite material through in-situ polymerization. The properties of DW/PMMA composite materials were investigated. The results showed that the removal ratio of different lignin had a greater impact on the properties of wood, and the impact was more significant with the increasing removal ratio of lignin. The density of DW/PMMA composite was significantly higher than that of non-impregnated wood. Especially when the lignin removal ratio reached a high level(H-DW), the density of the composite material could reach 1.15 g/cm3, which was close to that of pure PMMA. Compared with DW, DW/PMMA had lower volumetric moisture absorption and water absorption expansion coefficient, and incremental volumetric expansion resistance, which indicated that the impregnation of MMA effectively improved the dimensional stability of DW. The DW/PMMA exhibited better mechanical property than that of the untreated wood/PMMA. Dynamic thermomechanical thermal analysis showed that the filling of PMMA effectively increased the rigidity of the prepared composite material.The DW/PMMA composites prepared in this study had excellent dimensional stability and mechanical properties. Among them, the bending strength of L-DW/PMMA impregnated with low lignin removal rate wood(L-DW) was 122.6 MPa, the bending modulus was 10 302.41 MPa, and the compression modulus was 5 492.14 MPa, which was more excellent than that of the untreated wood/PMMA.

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    Catalytic Hydrogenation of 5-Hydroxymethyl-furfural into 2, 5-Bishydroxymethylfuran
    Tian GAN, Kaili ZHANG, Ke YE, Ying LIU, Shubin WU, Junping ZHUANG
    2022, 42 (6):  24-30.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.004
    Abstract ( 136 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (4792KB) ( 228 )   Save

    The catalytic hydrogenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) for preparation of 2, 5-bishydroxymethylfuran(BHMF) was studied, using ethanol as hydrogen donor and solvent, and copper and zinc nanoparticles(Cu-Zn/CBD) supported by carbonized sugarcane bagasse(CBD) was used as catalyst. The effects of reaction parameters such as catalyst metal proportion, reaction temperature and reaction time on the reaction of HMF hydrogenation were investigated. The surface morphology and structure of the catalyst were characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The elemental valence and content of the catalyst were analyzed by XPS and ICP-OES, and mixture after reaction was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that the bimetallic Cu-Zn/CBD catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity than those of single metal catalyst Cu/CBD and Zn/CBD. Under the optimal conditions of the Cu/Zn mass ratio of 2∶1, the reaction temperature of 160 ℃, and the reaction time of 1.5 h, the conversion rate of HMF was 86.5%, and the yield of BHMF was 82.5%. The reusability of catalysts was excellent. After recycling for 5 times, owing to the loss of a small amount of Cu and Zn nanoparticles, the conversion rate HMF and yield of BHMF decreased to 77.3% and 76.8%, respectively.

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    Photooxidative Degradation of Indigo Extract by UV-Vis Spectroscopy
    Danyang LIU, Yangyang YAN, Chengzhang WANG
    2022, 42 (6):  31-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.005
    Abstract ( 143 )   HTML ( 106 )   PDF (3938KB) ( 232 )   Save

    Taking the photodegradation of synthetic indigo as a model, the degradation of indigo in dimethyl sulfoxide solvent was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, and the effects of mass concentration, illumination time and illumination methods on the degradation of indigo were investigated. The process and products of photodegradation of indigo extract(IE) were further studied. The results showed that the higher the concentration of indigo solution, the faster the degradation rate under natural light conditions was achieved. With the extension of time, the degradation rate of indigo solution was first fast and then slow. The degradation was most obvious in the first 5 days. After 17 days, more than 90% of indigo had been degraded, and the degradation was stopped until the 24th day. The absorbance value at the maximum absorption changed exponentially with time. The effect of ultraviolet light with higher energy on the degradation of indigo solution was stronger than that of sunlight and white flashlight. HPLC analysis showed that the proportion of isatin produced by the degradation of synthetic indigo standard and indigo extract were 56.78% and 85.50%, respectively, which proved that the main product of the degradation of synthetic and natural indigo was isatin.

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    Synthesis and Antifungal/Anti-oomycete of Turpentine Based Derivatives
    Xuan LI, Tingmin PAN, Yuanxiao GENG, Haiyu ZHOU, Jian LI, Yanqing GAO
    2022, 42 (6):  39-46.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.006
    Abstract ( 168 )   HTML ( 82 )   PDF (3312KB) ( 268 )   Save

    Three pinene-based derivatives of dihydrocuminic amides compounds(5a-5g), dihydrocuminic oxime esters compounds(6a-6f) and dihydrocuminic acyl hydrazones compounds(8a-8f) were prepared from β-pinene. The structurs of the product were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and MS. The bactericidal activities of the obtained compounds were investigated by mycelial growth rate method. The results showed that these 19 compounds had inhibitory effects on Valsa mali, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici, where the inhibitory effect on V. mali was stronger. The half effective mass concentration(EC50) values of compounds 5a and 8e against V. mali were 10.489 and 10.810 mg/L, respectively. The results of preliminary structure-activity relationship showed that the introduction of electronegative functional groups such as halogen atoms, cyano groups and nitro groups to the compounds could significantly improve the antibacterial activity of the compounds. Among them, 5a and 8e could be used as lead compounds for further optimization study.

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    Experimental Study of Tobacco Waste Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor
    Jian JIANG, Anfu HU, Jun WANG, Guojun ZHOU, Yunchao LI, Kaige WANG, Shurong WANG
    2022, 42 (6):  47-54.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.007
    Abstract ( 143 )   HTML ( 68 )   PDF (606KB) ( 213 )   Save

    In order to probe the high-value utilization of tobacco waste, the basic physicochemical properties of the feedstock as well as their thermal conversion characteristics were tested using TG, and Py-GC/MS, etc. Then, the pyrolysis experiment of tobacco waste was carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with a feeding rate of 10 kg/h. The results showed that tobacco waste had a very low bulk density and high porosity. The mass loss during tobacco pyrolysis was mainly occurred in the temperature range of 150-400 ℃, and the maximum rate of weight loss occurred near 180 and 315 ℃. The Py-GC/MS analysis of tobacco waste suggested that the bio-oil was mainly composed of nicotine, olefins, ketones, acids, aldehydes, alcohols, aromatics, phenols, pyridines and pyrroles. According to the pyrolysis experiment in the fluidized bed reactor, with the increase of pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500 ℃, the yield of bio-oil reached its maximum of 32.58% at 450 ℃. The dominant compound in bio-oil was nicotine, followed by acids, ketones, phenols, and N-heterocyclic compounds. In addition, the gas yield increased gradually with the increasing temperature, which was mainly composed of CO2 and CO, while the yield of solid char residue decreased.

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    Degradation of Lignin to Phenolic Compounds by Polyacid/H2O2 System
    Ningxin WEI, Xixin DUAN, Wenbiao XU, Junyou SHI
    2022, 42 (6):  55-63.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.008
    Abstract ( 212 )   HTML ( 135 )   PDF (933KB) ( 216 )   Save

    The catalytic performance of four keggin-type polyoxometalates with different oxidability to degrade lignin into phenolic compounds in H2O2 system was compared. H3PW12O40 and H5PMo10V2O40 catalysts had good effect on the depolymerization of lignin. Under the conditions of 140 ℃, 1 mL H2O2, 1 h, the yield of bio-oil could reach 54.60% by using H3PW12O40 as catalyst, and the total yield of phenolic compounds could reach 6.38%. By using H5PMo10V2O40 as catalyst, the yield of bio-oil could reach 60.96% and the total yield of monophenol compounds could reach 11.67% at 140 ℃, 2 mL H2O2 and 1 h. Compared with HPW, PMo10V2 could significantly increase the yield of monophenols in H2O2 system due to its strong oxidizing ability. A series of characterizations such as FT-IR, 2D-HSQC, and GC-MS were performed to prove the effectiveness of the system in depolymerizing lignin into phenolic compounds.

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    Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7-Hexahydroxy-9, 10-Anthraquinone
    Xiang LEI, Minfeng ZHANG, Kexin HU, Yu KE, Deyong ZHENG
    2022, 42 (6):  64-68.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.009
    Abstract ( 190 )   HTML ( 138 )   PDF (564KB) ( 230 )   Save

    1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7-hexahydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone was synthesized by Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction using gallic acid as raw material and methanesulfonic acid as catalyst. The structure of the target product was verified by ultraviolet-visible(UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities in vitro of hexahydroxy-anthraquinone were evaluated in terms of its scavenging abilities on ABTS radical (ABTS+·), DPPH radical(DPPH·) and superoxide anion radical (O2-·). The results showed that the molar absorbance coefficient(ελmax) of 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7-hexahydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone at the maximum absorption wavelength of 293 nm was 3.25×104 L/(cm·mol), which was two times higher than that of the commonly used UV absorber 4-methoxycinnamic acid-2-ethylhexyl ester(OMC), indicating that it was an excellent UV absorber in UVB band. The half-inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of hexahydroxy-anthraquinone for the scavenging of ABTS+·, DPPH·, and O2-· were 42.1, 39.4, and 30.8 μmol/L, respectively. The scavenging ability of it on ABTS+· and DPPH· was stronger than that of Vc, but weaker than that of gallic acid, and the scavenging ability of it on O2-· was stronger than those of Vc and gallic acid.

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    Preparation of Crude Glycerol Based Polyurethane Composite Foam for Oil Absorbing
    Mengyu LI, Dongxiang WANG, Wei CHEN, Guizhuan XU, Chun CHANG, Chaojun DU
    2022, 42 (6):  69-76.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.010
    Abstract ( 191 )   HTML ( 79 )   PDF (2676KB) ( 190 )   Save

    Crude glycerol based polyol was synthesized by one-pot method using crude glycerol as the main raw material. The polyol was combined with polyether polyol 330N and 3628 was used for the preparation of crude glycerol based polyurethane composite foam for oil absorbing. The effects of the amount of crude glycerol based polyol, isocyanate index and foaming agent on the properties of foam materials were investigated. Moreover, the formulation of composite foam for oil absorbing was optimized, and the foam was further characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The results showed that the functional groups and skeleton structure of the crude glycerol based polyurethane composite foam synthesized under the conditions of 25% crude glycerol based polyol, 55% polyether polyol 330N, 20% polyether polyol 3628, 4% water(relative to the total polyol mass) and isocyanate index 0.90, were similar to those of the polyurethane foam synthesized commercial polyols. Meanwhile, the oil absorption rate of the composite foam to different organic compounds was ethanol of 15.1 g/g, methanol of 14.7 g/g, chloroform of 40.9 g/g, dichloromethane of 43.7 g/g, acetone of 18.0 g/g, toluene of 19.2 g/g, soybean oil of 9.0 g/g, diesel of 11.2 g/g, kerosene of 12.0 g/g. Compared with the polyurethane foam without crude glycerol polyols, the oil absorption rate of the composite foam to methanol decreased by 3.29%, while the oil absorption rates of other organic matters increased by 13.53%-46.34%.

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    The Optimization of Synthesis Process of Geranyl Nitrile
    Jiulong WANG, Hongyan SI, Shangxing CHEN, Xiaoping RAO, Zongde WANG, Shengliang LIAO
    2022, 42 (6):  77-83.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.011
    Abstract ( 197 )   HTML ( 128 )   PDF (503KB) ( 181 )   Save

    The synthesis process of geranyl nitrile from citral by catalytic ammoxidation was optimized. The factors affecting the conversion rate of citral and the yield of geranyl nitrile, including ammonia(NH3·H2O) dosage, hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) dosage, reaction time, reaction temperature, the type and dosage of catalyst, and solvent type were investigated. Through univariate and onthogonal experiments, the optimal synthesis conditions for geranyl nitrile was citral 35 mmol, n(citral)∶n(NH3·H2O)∶n(H2O2)∶n(CuCl)=1∶2.7∶5.5∶0.045, H2O2 as oxidant, CuCl as catalyst, 36 mL isopropanol as solvent, and the reaction time of 5 h, the reaction temperature of 10-15 ℃. At these synthesis conditions, the conversion ratio of citral was 97.50% and the yield of geranyl nitrile was 94.59%. When the conditions were amplified by 2, 3 and 5 times, the conversion rates of citral were 95.75%, 95.05% and 95.00%, and the yields of geranyl nitrile were 92.88%, 92.20% and 92.15%, respectively.

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    Chemical Structure of Tannins in Cercis chinensis and Cercis glabra and Their Antioxidant Activity
    Minghao WANG, Jinghan ZHANG, Jingke ZHAO, Liangliang ZHANG, Jiayan LUO
    2022, 42 (6):  84-90.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.012
    Abstract ( 155 )   HTML ( 163 )   PDF (667KB) ( 209 )   Save

    The contents of extractable condensed tannins(ECT) in Cercis chinensis, Cercis gigantea leaves and pods were determined. The chemical structure were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(RP-HPLC-MS), and the antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH scavenging assay and ferric reducing/antioxidant power(FRAP) assay. The results showed that the mass fractions of tannins in C. chinensis, C. glabra leaves and pods were 151.56, 96.75 and 198.12 mg/g, respectively. The structural units of flavan-3-ols which constituted three condensed tannins, were mainly procyanidin and prodelphidin, and there were galloacylated structures at the C3 position in their structural unit. All three condensed tannins had certain antioxidant activity. The median inhibitory concentration(IC50) values of the three condensed tannins for scavenging DPPH free radicals(DPPH·) were 67.02-97.70 mg/L, which were all higher than that of positive control BHA. The FRAP values of three condensed tannins was 3.51-5.56 mmol/g at the mass fraction of 125 mg/L, which were lower than the positive control BHA(6.51 mmol/g). Among them, the tannins of C. chinensis leaves showed excellent antioxidant activity, and its IC50 values of clearance rate of DPPH· was 67.02 mg/L, which was better than the positive control Vc(76.65 mg/L). Meanwhile, its FRAP value was 5.56 mmol/L.

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    Pretreatment of Poplar Heartwood by White-rot Fungus and Performance of Biological Chemi-mechanical Pulping
    Wenqi LUO, Yimin XIE, Gongxia ZHANG
    2022, 42 (6):  91-98.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.013
    Abstract ( 214 )   HTML ( 120 )   PDF (3437KB) ( 230 )   Save

    The white-rot fungus Trametes sp.48424 was used to pretreat poplar heartwood for the biochemical-mechanical pulp(Bio-CMP). The laccase activity of white-rot fungus during pretreatment was measured, and the changes in the chemical composition of poplar heartwood before and after pretreatment were also analyzed. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance(13C NMR) were applied to intensively study the degradation mechanism of peplar heartwood by white-rot-fungus. Using Bio-CMP process, the changes of pulp fiber morphology and paper properties were discussed. The results showed that the white-rot fungus could perform solid-state fermentation well on the surface of the heartwood chips, and the laccase activity reached the maximum value of 1.3 IU/mL after 8 day of pretreatment. In the pretreatment stage, the white-rot fungus could lead to a porous and wrinkled surface structrue of the wood chip, and the degradation rate of Klason lignin was higher than that of holocellulose. White-rot fungus pretreatment could cleave β-O-4 side chain(δ 60.6, 72.7) substructure in milled wood lignin(MWL) effectively, while it had little effect on aromatic rings, reflecting that the degradation of lignin by white-rot fungus mainly happened on the lignin side chain. Compared with reference experiment, after poplar heartwood chips being pretreated by white-rot fungus, the fiber length and kinking index of the pulp increased, the content of fines reduced, and the paper strength enhanced obviously.

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    Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Tannic Acid Doped Polypyrrole/Cellulose Flexible Supercapacitors
    Fangfang SHI, Limin ZANG, Jingyu ZHANG, Jinze WU, Jianhui QIU, Chao YANG
    2022, 42 (6):  99-107.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.014
    Abstract ( 155 )   HTML ( 149 )   PDF (6616KB) ( 251 )   Save

    Tannic acid(TA) doped polypyrrole(PPy)/cellulose(XWS)(TA/PPy/XWS) supercapacitors electrodes materials were prepared via in situ polymerization on the surface of cellulose, in which TA was used as the electroactive dopant. The effects of each component in the electrodes and the cellulose content on the electrochemical performance of the electrodes were investigated. The results showed that TA could provide pseudocapacitance through reversible redox reaction, which could enhance the specific capacitance of the electrode material. The TA doped PPy particles were coated on the surface of the cellulose, which could expose more active sites to further improve the electrochemical performance of the electrodes. With the increasing cellulose content, the specific capacitance of the electrode increased at first and then decreased. The maximum specific capacitance of the prepared TA/PPy/XWS-30 electrode reached 340.7 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g. TA/PPy/XWS-30 was then coated on the filter paper by screen printing to assemble the flexible supercapacitor. The maximum specific capacitance, energy density and power density of the supercapacitor were 90.7 F/g, 8.1 W·h/kg and 705.8 W/kg, respectively. The capacitance retention rate was 73.8% after 5 000 charge-discharge cycles. Besides, the capacitance retention rate remains at 86.4% after 2 500 bending cycles at 180°, which exhibits excellent flexibility and charge-discharge cycling stability. The corresponding performance of the series and parallel connection and instance of lighting an electronic watch demonstrates that the supercapacitor has a good application prospect.

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    Extraction and Separation of Total Proanthocyanidins from Taxus cuspidata sieb.et Zucc. Branches and Leaves and Their Antidiabetic Activity
    Ping JIANG, Jingliang QU, Yuxin JIA, Zhichao SUN, Siying LIU, Fei WANG
    2022, 42 (6):  108-116.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.015
    Abstract ( 167 )   HTML ( 119 )   PDF (815KB) ( 230 )   Save

    The proanthocyanidins were extracted by enzymolysis and ultrasonic-assisted coupling extraction method using Taxus cuspidata branches and leaves(TCBL) as the materials. The optimum extraction process was investigated by the single factor experiment and response surface experiment and a proanthocyanidin compound was obtained by extraction and separation. Then, in vitro antidiabetic activities of the fractions isolated from different solvent extract and the ethyl acetate extract by macroporous adsorption resin were studied. The results showed that the optimum process conditions of enzyme and ultrasonic assisted coupling extraction of proanthocyanidins were 60% ethanol aqueous as solvent, enzyme concentration of 0.15 g/L, liquid-solid ratio of 14∶1(mL∶g), enzymolysis time of 50 min, enzymolysis temperature of 40 ℃, and ultrasonic power of 120 W. The extraction yield of proanthocyanidins for one time was 3.84%(extraction rate was 83.48%) under these conditions. Response surface model significance test found that the P value of model was 0.000 2, indicating that the difference was very obvious, the regression equation was effective, and the model had statistical significance. The ethyl acetate extract was separated and purified by AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin, dextran gel, and silica gel column chromatography to obtain a proanthocyanidin compound, which was identified as a dimeric proanthocyanidins of catechin and robinatinol by TOF-MS structure identification and ultraviolet full-wavelength scanning. The anti-diabetes activities of 7 components(CBFr.1-CBFr.7) isolated from different solvent extracts and ethyl acetate extracts by macroporous adsorption resin were studied. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract had a good inhibitory effect on α-amylase activity and α-glucosidase activity, and the inhibition rates were 83.6% and 63.03%, respectively. The median inhibitory concentration(IC50) values of CBFr.1-CBFr.5 for α-amylase were ranging from 0.036 to 0.043 g/L, and they all had a good inhibitory ability to α-amylase. CBFr.3 showed the best inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, with an IC50 value of 0.04 g/L, which was lower than that of acarbose(0.063 g/L). Analysis showed that CBFr.1-CBFr.4 had better α-glycosidase enzyme inhibition activity and moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity, which could achieve the effect to lower blood sugar and reduce side effects owing to excessive reduction of α-amylase activity. Therefore, CBFr.1-CBFr.4 could be used as type Ⅱ diabetes inhibitors.

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    Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimication of Reducing the Content of Militarine in Bletilla striata by Rinsing
    Moran CHEN, Huazhong YU, Leilei LIU, Kehua TANG
    2022, 42 (6):  117-122.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.016
    Abstract ( 145 )   HTML ( 120 )   PDF (505KB) ( 212 )   Save

    In order to establish a simple and effective processing method to reduce the bitterness of Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A. Murray) Rchb.f., response surface methodology was used to explore the best optimum conditions of hot water rinsing B. striata fresh stem slices. Taking the content of 1, 4-bis[4-(glucoseoxy) benzyl]-2-isobutyl malate(militarine) as the index the effects of hot water rinsing temperature, rinsing time and pH value on the militarine content in B. striata were investigated by a single factor experiment, and the rinsing was optimized by Box-Behnken response surface analysis. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: rinsing temperature of 95 ℃, rinsing time of 50 min, hot water pH of 6.5.Under these optimized conditions, the mass fraction of militarine decreased by 63.55% in parallel experiments, and the mass fraction of militarine in the fresh stem slices of B. striata reduced 83.10% after three rinses. Rinsing B. striata fresh stem slices with hot water for 1-3 times could significantly reduce the content of militarine under optimum conditions.

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    Application of Deep Eutectic Solvents in Molecular Imprinting Separation Technology
    Chunhui MA, Xiaojing WANG, Lihan SUN, Wei LI, Sha LUO, Shouxin LIU
    2022, 42 (6):  123-135.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.017
    Abstract ( 215 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF (2302KB) ( 282 )   Save

    Using the roles of deep eutectic solvents(DES) in the molecularly imprinted polymers(MIP) as the main line, the roles of different components of DES in the preparation process of MIP were summarized. DES was used as the template molecule to enhance its water solubility, and make the synthesized MIP with good selectivity. DES could be used as the functional monomer or auxiliary functional monomer to increase the binding site with template molecules and effectively improve the affinity of the target. As the pore-forming agent, DES could reduce environmental pollution and improve pore permeability. DES was used as eluent to realize the advantages of environmental friendliness and low cost separation. DES could also modify the support of imprinted molecules on the surface, so that the required functional groups could be obtained after the support surface was loaded with DES, which was conducive to the preparation of molecule-imprinted polymers and could improve the adsorption performance of molecule-imprinted polymers. Meanwhile, a theoretical basis and development direction for the application of DES in the future green separation of molecular imprinting technology(MIT) was prospected.

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    Research Progress on Olive Oil Secondary Metabolite of Oleocanthal
    Wenjun LI, Chengzhang WANG, Jiandu LEI, Fengxia TANG, Dong PEI, Xiaobo SONG
    2022, 42 (6):  136-146.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.06.018
    Abstract ( 172 )   HTML ( 134 )   PDF (838KB) ( 200 )   Save

    Oleocanthal(OC) is a secondary metabolite of olive oil. Currently, it has become one of the research hotspots in abroad, while domestic attention is less. The relevant research foundation is weaker in China, and the big gap with foreign countries is obvious. As an important active ingredient discovered in recent years, OC has a stronger anti-inflammatory activity than that of ibuprofen, and it had preventive and therapeutic effects on various diseases originating from inflammation, such as rheumatic diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc. At the same time, its excellent neuroprotective function also promote OC to inhibit the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This review focuses on an in-depth introduction to the biological activities including anti-inflammatory activity and anticancer activity(including melanoma, multiple myeloma, breast and colon cancer), neuroprotection, cardiovascular protection, and the prevention and therapeutic effects of diabetes, and the current efficient extraction and separation methods of OC were also analyzed, including liquid-liquid extraction separation method, high performance countercurrent chromatography extraction method, high vacuum assisted extraction method and centrifugal partition chromatography method. Meanwhile, different factors affecting OC contents were comprehensively discussed, and its research progress in bioavailability was explored. Finally, the future research of OC was prospected.

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