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    28 June 2022, Volume 42 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
    Preparation of Copper Loaded Activated Carbon and Its Adsorption Performance of Gaseous Benzene
    XU Zhou, LI Wei, LIU Shouxin
    2022, 42 (3):  1-9.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.001
    Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (5140KB) ( 7 )   Save
    The modified coconut shell activated carbons were prepared by loading CuCl2, carbonization and CO2 activation. The Cu-loaded activated carbons were labeled as AC3, AC4, AC5, and AC7 to represent the mass fractions of cupric salt solutions 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.7%, respectively. The Cu-loaded activated carbons were characterized by means of N2 adsorption isotherm, SEM, XRD and XPS. Their dynamic adsorption-desorption performance was measured by the gravimetric method. After modification, the acidic oxygenated groups on the surface of activated carbon decreased. The results showed that cupric salt existed in two forms, i.e., CuO and Cu2O. It was found that the presence of Cu loading led to the decreasing of surface area and pore volume of modified sample, and the increasing of the surface area and proportion of micropore. AC5 showed the largest values of the surface area(733.20 m2/g) and proportion(72.99%) of micropore. Furthermore, AC5 had the optimal equilibrium adsorption capacity(356.40 mg/g) which increased by 33.38% compared to the raw sample, and the optimal equilibrium adsorption time(118.80 min) which increased by 33.38%. Moreover, the adsorption performance of AC5 was better than the activated carbons in the organic gas filter cartridge(3M-3301 CN and 3M-6001 CN). After five cycles of adsorbents regeneration test, 80% of adsorption capability was still able to be reserved. The Cu-loaded activated carbons improved the adsorption performance by transforming the style from physical adsorption to physical-chemical adsorption through complexation of π-bonds in benzene with hollow d-orbitals in Cu2+.
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    Dehydroabietic Acid Triarylamine-based Acrylonitrile Compounds: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties
    GAO Yanan, DOU Liwei, SONG Jie, GAO Hong, SHANG Shibin, SONG Zhanqian
    2022, 42 (3):  10-18.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.002
    Abstract ( 4 )   PDF (2294KB) ( 2 )   Save
    Compounds methyl (Z)-6-((4-(5-(2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-2-cyanovinyl) thiophen-2-yl) phen-yl)(4-methoxyphenyl) amino)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate(2) and dimethyl 6,6'-(((1-cyanoethene-1,2-diyl) bis(thiophene-5,2-diyl)) bis(4,1-phenylene)) bis((4-methoxyphen-yl) azanediyl))(E)-bis(7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate)(3) were obtained simply by mixing 5-(dehydroabietic acid triarylamine)-thiophene-2-carbaldehyde and 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenylacetonitrile at room temperature and 100℃, respectively. The UV-Vis absorption spectra, fluorescence emission spectra, solvatochromism effect, aggregation-induced emission(AIE) characteristics, thermal stability and electrochemical performance of compounds are studied, and the relationship between their structure and performance is further studied through theoretical calculations. Compared with triarylamine-based acrylonitrile compounds, after introducing the dehydroabietic acid skeleton, the compounds show a larger stokes shift and longer red light emission in the solid state. 2 exhibits AIE characteristics, while 3 does not have AIE characteristics. Both of the two compounds have good thermal stability and morphological stability. 2 and 3 have higher highest occupied molecular orbital(HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital(LUMO) energy levels and narrow band gap, due to the introduction of dehydroabietic acid skeleton.
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    Preparation of Pesticide Dispersant from Acetic Acid Lignin and Performance Evaluation
    ZHU Wenxiang, CHEN Fangeng, HE Tian, SU Yuhui, LIU Yunsi
    2022, 42 (3):  19-26.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.003
    Abstract ( 8 )   PDF (617KB) ( 6 )   Save
    Acetic acid lignin(AAL) was fractionated by dissolution in aqueous solution of acetic acid with various mass fraction. Four fractions with different relative molecular weight, which were chosen from the fractionation products, were sulfomethylated to obtain products with different relative molecular weight and sulfonic group content. The sulfomethylated lignin(SML) was added into myclobutanil as a pesticide dispersant to get a 40% myclobutanil wettable powder(WP). The influence of relative molecular weight and sulfonic group content on the application performance of 40% myclobutanil wettable powder was investigated. The results indicated that the suspension rate of myclobutanil increased from 72.68% to 83.69% and the wetting time increased from 45 s to 62 s when the average molecular weight increased from 5 768 to 13 964. The suspension rate of myclobutanil increasedfrom 73.56% to 84.86% and the wetting time decreased from 72 s to 57 s when the sulfonic group increased from 0.51 mmol/g to 1.78 mmol/g. The average particle size of the dispersed phase of a 40% myclobutanil WP decreased when the relative molecular weight and sulfonic group content increased. However, too high relative molecular weight resulted in a decrease of the suspension rate of myclobutanil.
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    Synthesis and Biological Activity of N-(α-Eleostearic Acyl) Triazole Derivatives
    CHENG Jiang, XIE Pujun, HUANG Lixin, ZHANG Caihong, LIU Lujie
    2022, 42 (3):  27-33.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.004
    Abstract ( 2 )   PDF (623KB) ( 3 )   Save
    A series of N-(α-eleostearic acyl) triazole compounds derived from α-eleostearic acid were synthesized:N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-3, 5-dibromo-1,2,4-triazole(3a), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1,2,4-triazole(3b), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-3-sulfhydryl-1,2,4-triazole(3c), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole(3d), N-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1,2,3-benzotriazole(3e), 3-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1,2,4-triazole(3f), 4-(α-eleostearic acyl)-1,2,4-triazole(3g). The products were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. The results of biological activity experiments showed that compound 3a and 3e had inhibitory effect on hepatocarcinoma cells Hep G2,rectal carcinoma cells DLD-1 and breast cancer cells MCF-7. The 50% inhibition concentration(IC50) of compound 3d on MCF-7 was 25.12 μmol/L,which was better than the IC50 of 5-fluorouracil(5-Fu). All compounds had good inhibitory activity against Candida albicans, and inhibitory activities on against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were not significant. The IC50 of compound 3e against Candida albicans was 22.96 mg/L, which was similar to 5-flucytosine and indicated that it had the potential of drug development.
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    Composition Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Cinnamon Polysaccharide
    LI Shengnan, CHENG Xian, BI Liangwu, ZENG Weixing, CHEN Yuxiang, ZHAO Zhendong
    2022, 42 (3):  34-40.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.005
    Abstract ( 5 )   PDF (749KB) ( 3 )   Save
    In order to explore the antioxidant activity of cinnamon polysaccharides, the protein was removed from the water extract of cinnamon(CE)to obtain crude polysaccharides. By using cellulose ion column DE-52 and propylene dextran gel S-300, the cinnamon neutral polysaccharides(CNP) was obtained. The relative molecular mass(Mr) of CNP was determined by gel permeation chromatography(GPC), and the monosaccharide component of CNP were determined by pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography. The connection modes of its monosaccharides were determined by methylation method and nuclear magnetic resonance method. The in vitro chemical model was used to study the scavenging effects of CNP on DPPH and ABTS+. The results indicated that the weight average relative molecular mass(Mw) of CNP was 3 630 and the main monosaccharide was glucose. Three kinds of connection modes of monosaccharides were 1,4,5-Ac3-2,3,6-Me3-Glu, 1,5-Ac2-2,3,4,6-Me4-Glu, and 1,5,6-Ac3-2,3,4-Me3-Glu. The determination results of free radicals scavenging by CNP showed that when the mass concentration of CNP was 2 g/L, the DPPH scavenging rate reached the maximum of 84%, the ABTS+ scavenging rate reached 60%. Although the free radical scavenging rate of CNP was lower than that of Vc, the DPPH scavenging effect was comparable to that of Vc when the concentration of CNP reached 0.5 g/L. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of cinnamon neutral polysaccharide was good and had good development value.
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    Electrosorption of Copper Ions on Bagasse-based Phosphorus-doped Activated Carbon Electrode
    XIONG Yongzhi, LIU Yanyan, WANG Guilong, LU Beili, HUANG Biao, LIN Guanfeng
    2022, 42 (3):  41-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.006
    Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (1309KB) ( 3 )   Save
    Bagasse-based phosphorus-doped activated carbon(PAC-900) was prepared with bagasse as carbon source,phytic acid as phosphorus source and activator, and used as electrode for the electrosorption of Cu2+. The pore structure, surface chemical properties and elemental composition of the samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm, XPS and SEM-EDX. The research results showed that when the initial concentration of Cu2+ was 100 mg/L, the electrosorption of Cu2+ by PAC-900 was as high as 86.85 mg/g, which was much higher than 35.15 mg/g of undoped activated carbon(C-900). After 10 times of desorption, the adsorption capacity could still reach 45.38 mg/g. The activation of phytic acid could produce the activated carbon with the specific surface area as high as 1 671.75 m2/g, and the total pore volume and micropore volume of 1.33 cm3/g and 0.09 cm3/g, respectively, which could significantly improve its electrochemical performance and hydrophilicity. The adsorption process was mainly affected by the electric double layers adsorption and Faraday adsorption. The adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic process analysis showed that the adsorption process conformed to the Freundich isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic process, it indicated that there was not only single-layer adsorption but also multi-layer adsorption in the adsorption process; XPS and SEM-EDX analysis results showed that the P element mainly existed in the form of C-P-O, C-O-P and C-P=O, and C-P was very rare, among which C-P=O contributed the most to the Faradaic adsorption of Cu2+.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystal/Gold Nanoparticle Composite Iridescent Film
    MENG Jiacheng, XU Mingcong, LIU Shouxin, LI Wei
    2022, 42 (3):  49-56.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.007
    Abstract ( 11 )   PDF (12893KB) ( 6 )   Save
    The filter paper was used as raw material to prepare cellulose nanocrystals(CNCs) and gold nanoparticles(GNPs) were prepared by sodium citrate reduction method. Subsequently, CNCs/GNPs composite iridescence was prepared by blending GNPs and CNCs at different mass ratios, following by adding fructose to the above system in order to study the influence of fructose on the plasmon absorption resonance effect. Then, the composite films were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), reflection spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction(XRD), ultraviolet-visible(UV) spectroscopy and circular dichroism(CD). The results showed that CNCs have self-assembled during the film formation process and formed a left-handed chiral layered liquid crystal structure; the composite film had obvious iridescent color, periodic layered structure and fingerprint texture. The addition of GNPs did not change the CNCs itself, but the composite membrane had obvious plasmon resonance absorption peak and blue-shifted. Moreover, the addition of fructose could make the color of the film red-shifted and promote the more uniform dispersion of GNPs, thereby enhancing the plasmon resonance absorption effect of GNPs. Particularly, the addition of GNPs and fructose did not change the crystal structure of CNCs, nor did it affect the crystallinity of cellulose.
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    Synthesis and Properties of a Rosin-based Anionic Surfactant with Azobenzene Group
    YE Shengfeng, ZHAI Zhaolan, SHANG Shibin, SONG Zhanqian
    2022, 42 (3):  57-64.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.008
    Abstract ( 4 )   PDF (2070KB) ( 3 )   Save
    A rosin-based anionic surfactant with azobenzene group named sodium 4-maleopimaric acid ethyl ester azophenol(E-MPA-AZO-Na) was synthesized through D-A addition, amidation, diazotization, coupling reaction, esterification, and acid-base neutralization using rosin as raw material. Its structure was characterized by FT-IR and NMR. The surface activities and foam propertieswere investigated by surface tension method, Nile red(NR) fluorescence probe method and polarizing microscope.The resultsshowed that the criticalmicelles concentration(Ccmc) of surfactant E-MPA-AZO-Na was only 0.035 mmol/L,the surface tension at the Ccmc(λcmc) was 47.11 mN/m, and the minimum area per molecule(amin) was 1.35 nm2, which meant thatE-MPA-AZO-Na possesses excellent surface activities. Stable foams could be stabilized when the concentrations of E-MPA-AZO-Nawere 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 mmol/L. Better foaming abilities, smaller foam size and more stable foam emerged with increasing E-MPA-AZO-Na concentration. What's more, the half-life time of the foams formed at 0.375, 0.750 and 1.500 mmol/L were 1 292, 1 770 and 2 534 min, respectively, indicated that E-MPA-Azo-Na possessed outstanding foam stability.
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    Optimization and Kinetics of Hydrolysis of 5-Chloromethylfurfural to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural
    WANG Shuai, TANG Xing, SUN Yong, ZENG Xianhai, LIN Lu
    2022, 42 (3):  65-74.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.009
    Abstract ( 4 )   PDF (1435KB) ( 2 )   Save
    The hydrolysis of 5-chloromethyl furfural(CMF) in pure water or water/acetone system to 5-hydroxymethyl furfural(HMF) was studied. The effects of hydrolysis reaction conditions(such as solvent system, alkali neutralizer, temperature and CMF addition amount) on the hydrolysis of CMF were investigated, and the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction was analyzed. The results showed that the water/acetone system is helpful to reduce the side reaction of HMF, and the addition of sodium disulfite(Na2S2O4) could further prevent the generation of humus. The optimal hydrolysis conditions are as follows:1 g CMF was added with 0.35 g CaCO3 in a mixture of 10 mL water/acetone with volume ratio of 1(:)] 4, and incubated at 353.15 K for 28 min. Under these conditions, the CMF conversion rate was 97%, the yield of HMF was 85%, and the yield of by-product levulinic acid(LA) was 6%. The separation rate of HMF increased from 50% to 86% with the addition of Na2S2O4. The kinetic study results showed that the activation energy of CMF hydrolysis was 12.3 kJ/mol and the hydrolysis rate constant k1=5.56exp(-1.23×104/RT) in water/acetone system.
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    Power Generation Performance of Lignin in Direct Biomass Fuel Cell
    DU Yifei, PU Yue, ZHANG Liping, ZHAO Qiang, SONG Xianliang
    2022, 42 (3):  75-82.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.010
    Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (897KB) ( 5 )   Save
    By changing the solvent system and pretreatment conditions, a series of studies were carried out on the electricity generation performance of the four types of lignin (enzymatic hydrolysis lignin(EHL), alkaki lignin(AL), sodium ligninsulfonate(SL) and furfural residue(FR))in direct biomass fuel cells. The UV spectrum, FT-IR spectrum and 1H NMR spectrum before and after the reaction of alkali lignin were analyzed. The results showed that the alkali lignin exhibited the best power generation performance, the open circuit voltage(OCV) could reach 392.7 mV, and the peak power density(PPD) was 0.198 W/m2. And lignin had the best power generation performance in NaOH solution. Water bath heating pretreatment could improve the power generation performance of lignin. The higher the temperature and the longer the treatment time, the better the power generation performance of the lignin would be. When lignin was irradiated with ultraviolet light, the electricity production performance increased first and then decreased with the passage of time. The electricity production performance was the best when it was treated for 24 hours. The OCV could be increased to 431.2 mV, and PPD was increased to 0.371 W/m2. After the oxidation reaction in the fuel cell, the benzene ring structure of lignin had been destroyed to a certain extent, and the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring had been oxidized to a carbonyl structure. The UV absorption peak of alkali lignin produced red-shift and color enhancement effects. And in the FT-IR spectrum, the carbonyl absorption peak was enhanced. Especially, the signals of aromatic protons, phenolic hydroxyl groups and aliphatic hydroxyl groups were weakened in 1H NMR spectrum.
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    Thermal Properties and Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Tannic Acid
    LU Yuxin, LU Lingang
    2022, 42 (3):  83-89.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.011
    Abstract ( 1 )   PDF (4869KB) ( 2 )   Save
    Tannic acid(TA) is a kind of multi hydroxyl aromatic biomass. The thermal properties of TA were analyzed by thermogravimetric experiment, the carbonization process of TA was observed by muffle furnace heating experiment, the apparent activation energy was observed by KAS and Ozawa method, and the most probable function was determined by Satava method. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that TA entered the state of rapid weight loss at about 182℃; when the temperature reached 800℃, the carbon residue of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 15.29%. In air atmosphere, the carbon residue was 1.97% due to the second rapid weight loss in the temperature range of 436-538℃. It was found in the macro carbonization experiment that TA would form an expanded carbon layer when heated. Among them, a hollow carbon layer appeared at 100-200℃, and a solid carbon layer was formed at 300-400℃, which had obvious expansion, integrity, compactness and good gloss. It had the potential to become a new carbon source in intumescent flame retardants. The results of thermal decomposition kinetics showed that the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition of TA in nitrogen atmosphere was 494 kJ/mol, lgA was 111.32, and the most probable mechanism function of rapid weight loss stage was G(α)=[-ln(1-α)]1/n, n=0.105 3, and its thermal decomposition mechanism belonged to random nucleation and subsequent nucleation growth reaction.
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    Synthesis of Ethyl Cellulose, Gum Rosin and Fatty Acid Based Polymer and Its Application Performance as Pressure Sensitive Adhesive
    GUO Xiaoliang, QI Simai, WANG Chunpeng, CHU Fuxiang, WANG Jifu
    2022, 42 (3):  90-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.012
    Abstract ( 1 )   PDF (701KB) ( 5 )   Save
    Gum rosin derived methacrylate(GRGMA) was firstly synthesized by the esterification reaction between gum rosin(GR) and glycidyl methacrylate(GMA). Subsequently, atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP) was applied to fabricate ethyl cellulose-gum rosin-fatty acid derived co-polymer(EC-R-LMA). The structure and properties of GRGMA and EC-R-LMA were then characterized by FT-IR,1H NMR, DSC, TG/DTG, universal tensile machine and contact angle measurement. It was found that the monomer conversion was higher than 90%. With the increase of the molar ratio of GRGMA from 10% to 70%, the Tg of EC-R-LMA increased from -61.3℃ to 62.58℃. Particularly, when the molar ratio of GRGMA increased from 30% to 35%, the tensile strength at break increased from 0.41 MPa to 0.50 MPa, whereas the tensile strength at break of the cross-linking polymer(BMI-EC-R-LMA) increased to 1.04 and 1.27 MPa respectively after cross-linking. It was also observed that when the molar ratio of GRGMA and LMA was set to 1(:)] 9 and 2(:)] 8, the Tg of EC-R-LMAs were -61.3℃ and -52.9℃, respectively, which could be used as a pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA). Notably, GRGMA acted as a new type of hard monomer for the PSA rather than as a tackifying resin. While the molar content of GRGMA increased from 10% to 20%, the 180° peelstrength of PSA increased from 0.56 N/cm to 1.08 N/cm, and the shear resistance property increased from 2 h to more than 72 h.
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    Esterified Galactomannan Mixed with Mg(OH)2 and Sb2O3 for Making Reinforced Flame-retardant Paper
    BI Shengjun, SONG Xianliang
    2022, 42 (3):  97-104.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.013
    Abstract ( 4 )   PDF (8329KB) ( 2 )   Save
    In this paper, butane tetracarboxylic acid esterified galactomannan(EGM) was used as paper strengthening agent. Equally, antimony trioxide and magnesium hydroxide were used as flame retardants. Then, the effects of their compounding methods on the strength and flame retardancy of flame retardant paper were studied. The results showed that the addition of EGM could improve the tensile index, bursting index and folding resistance of flame retardant paper. When 1.5% EGM and 15% magnesium hydroxide were added, the tensile index of flame retardant paper reached 56.2 Nm/g, the bursting index reached 3.37 kPam2/g, and the folding resistance reached 46 times, respectively. Notably, compared with the flame retardant paper without EGM, tensile index, burst index and folding endurance increased by 14.7%, 12.0% and 119.0%, respectively. Particularly, when the addition amount of antimony trioxide was 15%, the addition of magnesium hydroxide was25%, the flame retardant effect of the paper reached the best, namely, the carbonization length of the flame retardant paper was 16.8 mm, thecontinuous burning time was 0.43 s, and the ignition time was 25.96 s. SEM and EDS analysis showed that magnesium hydroxide and antimony trioxide were successfully attached to the paper fiber. The addition of EGM enhanced the retention of magnesium hydroxide and antimony trioxide on the paper surface and the adhesion between paper fibers. TG curves showed that the addition of antimony trioxide and magnesium hydroxide increased the initial decomposition temperature of the paper, and the amount of carbon formed at 600℃ increased from 0.34% of the control to 15%.
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    The Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant and Antityrosinase Activities of Cinnamon Essential Oil and Cinnamaldehyde
    LU Lu, SHU Chengjie, GE Ling, PAN Jiechen, ZHU Kai, SHI Baojun
    2022, 42 (3):  105-110.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.014
    Abstract ( 1 )   PDF (498KB) ( 2 )   Save
    The antibacterial effects of cinnamon essential oil and cinnamaldehyde on bacteria(Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi(Candida albicans) were compared by filter paper method, minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC). The antioxidant activities of cinnamon essential oil and cinnamaldehyde were compared by ABTS+ scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power(FRAP), as well as their antityrosinase activities were compared. The results showed that the two research subjects showed different sensitivities to the inhibitory effects of the five tested strains, and both had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans. According to the results of MIC and MBC, cinnamic essential oil and cinnamaldehyde had different inhibitory effects on the tested strains, among which the inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde on S. aureus, C. albicans and P. aeruginosa were obviously better than those of cinnamon essential oil. The antioxidant activity of cinnamic essential oil was better than that of cinnamaldehyde. The ABTS+ scavenging rate(94.1%) of 16 g/L cinnamic essential oil was 3 times that of the same concentration of cinnamic aldehyde. The FRAP value(1 502 μmol/L) was 5.8 times that of cinnamaldehyde at the same concentration. Both cinnamon essential oil and cinnamon aldehyde could significantly inhibit tyrosinase activity. The IC50 of cinnamon essential oil to tyrosinase was 4.02 g/L, while the IC50 of cinnamaldehyde to tyrosinase was less than 1.25 g/L.
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    Fast Deacidification of Acid-rich Oil by Esterification Without Catalysis
    LI Ke, CHEN Jie, NIE Xiao'an, JIANG Jianchun
    2022, 42 (3):  111-116.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.015
    Abstract ( 2 )   PDF (595KB) ( 2 )   Save
    Using acid-rich oil as raw materials, the acid value was reduced by esterification with glycerol in the absence of a catalyst. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows:the mole ratio of glycerol to fatty acid was 1.2(:)] 1, the reaction temperature was 240℃, and the acid value could be reduced to below 1.66 mg/g for 2 h. The results showed that this process could not only achieve the purpose of fast deacidification within two hours, but also directly produce biodiesel through transesterification. FT-IR analysis confirmed the disappearance of carboxylic acid and the formation of triglyceride. The results of GPC analysis showed that the composition of the oil after deacidification was 21.93% triglyceride, 37.93% diglyceride and 40.14% diglyceride. And the obtained biodiesel was relatively pure fatty acid methyl esters. In addition, the improvement of the process also directly completed the "process roadmap of biodiesel production from oils with different acid values", which had a certain reference value for the development of biodiesel industry.
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    Synthesis of Anethole-based Diacylhydrazine Compounds and Their Antifungal Activity Against Plant Pathogens
    FAN Zhongtian, DUAN Wengui, LIN Guishan, CHEN Ming, HUANG Mei
    2022, 42 (3):  117-125.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.016
    Abstract ( 2 )   PDF (2339KB) ( 3 )   Save
    Anethole-based carboxylic acid, which maintained the phenylpropanoid C6-C3 active structural unit in anethole, was prepared by Perkin condensation reaction of propionic anhydride with anisaldehyde obtained by the oxidation of anethole. Then, nineteen anethole-based diacylhydrazine compounds(6a-6s) were synthesized via esterification, hydrazinolysis, and N-acylation reactions. All the target compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and ESI-MS. Their antifungal activity against eight tested plant pathogens was also evaluated. The results showed that, the target compounds showed certain antifungal activity against the eight tested plant pathogens, at the mass concentration of 50 mg/L. Among them, compounds 6a (R=H), 6f (R=m-Cl), 6o (R=p-I), 6p (R=p-OH), and 6q (R=p-t-Bu) had inhibition rates of 94.8%, 96.1%, 91.7%, 96.1%, and 91.7% against Physalospora piricola(all in A-class activity level), which were much better than that of the positive control chlorothalonil. Compounds 6f (R=m-Cl) and 6p (R=p-OH) were worthy of further investigation.
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    Research Progress of Biomass-based Stimulus-responsive Hydrogels
    LIU Yupeng, KUANG Peipei, CHEN Ying, WANG Jifu, WANG Chunpeng, CHU Fuxiang
    2022, 42 (3):  126-134.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.017
    Abstract ( 3 )   PDF (3151KB) ( 4 )   Save
    Stimulus-responsive hydrogels, as a new class of functional polymer materials, can actively sense the difference of the external environment and reflect the change to the outside world by specific ways such as swelling or contraction, and show a great application potential in many fields of life and production. As a renewable natural resources, biomass has been widely applied in the preparation of stimulus-responsive hydrogels in recent years. Particularlly for rapid development of engineering technology and applications, including controllable/active polymerization and click chemistry, dynamic covalent bond, supramolecular self-assembly and super molecular aggregation state regulatory molecules, etc, is able to overcome the instrisic structure defects of biomass macromolecule to a certain extent, and fabricate the stimulus-responsive hydrogels containing unique molecular structure of biomass raw materials, which promoted the development of new green synthesis strategies, multi-functional technology, simple modular synthesis technology, modern biotechnology and other technologies. Based on the stimulus-responsive methods and types of stimulus-responsive hydrogels, this paper assembles six types of hydrogels, including temperature response, acid-base response, light response, electric response, magnetic response and multiple response and highlights the effect of the unique molecular structure of biomass raw materials on the performance of the stimulus-responsive hydrogels. Also, the applications of biomass-based hydrogels with different environmental responses in the fields of drug controlled release, biological tissue engineering, biosensors, adsorption materials, cell culture and antibacterial materials were summarized, and the future development direction of biomass-based hydrogels was prospected.
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    Recent Progresses on the Catalytic Synthesis of Levulinate Esters
    LI Lei, WANG Minchao, MA Jiao, XU Zhanwei, ZHANG Yajing, JIA Songyan
    2022, 42 (3):  135-146.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2022.03.018
    Abstract ( 2 )   PDF (892KB) ( 3 )   Save
    In recent years, levulinic acid has been considered as a key biobased platform compound and attracted wide attention,which can be utilized in the synthesis of many high value-added chemicals. Among them, levulinates, as a class of important chemical products, can be used in alternative fuels, edible spices, plasticizers and other fields, especially as alternative fuels, which provides a feasible reference scheme for sustainable development. In this paper, the recent research progress on the catalytic synthesis of levulinates in the field of biomass conversion was reviewed. The reaction performances and related mechanisms were introduced involving in several approaches, such as the esterification of levulinic acid, the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol, the conversion of monosaccharides and cellulosic materials, respectively. The synthesis of levulinates was summarized and prospected.
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