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25 December 2021, Volume 41 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
Studies on Lignin-based Carbon Materials as Electrocatalysts of Fuel Cells Cathode Ⅰ: Pyrolysis Process of Modified Enzymatic Hydrolysis Lignin
Kainan JIN, Songlin ZUO, Youcai GUI, Baoshou SHEN
2021, 41 (6):  1-9.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.001
Abstract ( 34 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (2759KB) ( 26 )  

In order to prepare lignin-based high-performance electrocatalytic carbon materials for fuel cells, enzymatic hydrolysis lignin was used as raw material to prepare urea or melamine modified enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. TG and DSC were used to study the pyrolysis process of these three kinds of lignin. Meantime, lignin pyrolysis experiments were conducted by a vertical tube furnace at different pyrolysis temperatures. The yield of solid products was calculated, and the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen content of these solid products were tested by elemental analyzer. The results show that urea or melamine modified enzymatic hydrolysis lignin exhibit a significantly different pyrolysis process from unmodified enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. The pyrolysis of urea modified enzymatic hydrolysis lignin mainly take place in the temperature range of 180-360 ℃, and melamine modified enzymatic hydrolysis lignin in a narrower temperature range of 280-350 ℃. Although melamine is basically thermally decomposed at 400 ℃, melamine modified enzymatic hydrolysis lignin produce a carbon product with a nitrogen content of more than 10% at 900 ℃. Moreover, the yield of char derived from melamine-modified lignin is equivalent to that of unmodified lignin. Conclusively, the melamine modification produces a significant effect on the pyrolysis of lignin. Further comparative analysis revealed that melamine modification result into the formation of a large amount of nitrogen-containing organic compounds with high chemical activity during the lignin pyrolysis, which greatly increased the probability of secondary pyrolysis reactions of melamine modified lignin at a lower temperature, thus significantly affecting the yield and nitrogen content of the final solid products.

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Studies on Lignin-based Carbon Materials as Electrocatalysts of Fuel Cells Cathode Ⅱ: Evolution of Chemical Structure of Lignin Derived Chars
Kainan JIN, Songlin ZUO, Youcai GUI, Baoshou SHEN, Shanshan WANG, Xin HU
2021, 41 (6):  10-18.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.002
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2601KB) ( 23 )  

This paper investigated the evolution of chemical structure of the chars prepared by carbonization of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin and the urea-modified and melamine-modified lignin. Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra were collected for these carbonized lignin in the temperature range of 300-900 ℃. Based on these spectra, a comprehensive analysis was conducted in order to elucidate the evolution in chemical functional groups and the oxygen and nitrogen-containing groups involved in these lignin-derived chars. The results showed that, 600-700 ℃ is an important carbonization temperature range where the remarkable evolution of the oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing groups happens, independent of the lignin modification by urea or melamine. Below 600 ℃, carboxyl, carbonyl and hydroxyl predominate in the oxygen-containing groups of the carbonized lignin; above 600 ℃, the hydroxyls and carbonyls are dominant, of which hydroxyls are the most. For the urea-modified and melamine-modified lignin, the pyridine-like and pyrrole-like groups are the predominant nitrogen-containing groups in the carbonized lignin before 600 ℃. Above 700 ℃, with the increase in the carbonization temperature, pyrrole-like groups were gradually transformed into quaternary species and, as a result, the species of the pyridine-like, pyrrole-like, quaternary nitrogen become a predominant nitrogen groups in the carbonized lignin chars.

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Studies on Lignin-based Carbon Materials as Electrocatalysts of Fuel Cells Cathode Ⅲ: Microstructure Evolution of Lignin Derived Chars
Songlin ZUO, Kainan JIN, Youcai GUI, Baoshou SHEN, Shanshan WANG, Mengmei YANG
2021, 41 (6):  19-26.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.003
Abstract ( 11 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (5484KB) ( 17 )  

Three series of lignin-based chars were prepared from three raw materials, hardwood enzymatic hydrolysis lignin and their urea-modified and melamine-modified counterparts, through carbonization in the temperature range of 300-900 ℃ in order to elucidate the microstructure evolution of lignin chars. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption, electric resistivity analysis and scanning electron microscope were employed to characterize the graphite-like microcrystallite structure, electric conductivity and pore structure of their lignin-based chars. The results consistently showed that when the carbonization temperature was increased from 600 ℃ to 700 ℃, the electronic resistivity of the chars was sharply promoted leading to the rapid transition of lignin-based chars from an insulator to a semiconductor, and the development of the graphite-like microcrystallite component in the chars was remarkably enhanced, whether lignin as raw materials was modified by nitrogen-containing substances or not. However, urea or melamine modification lead to a reduction of interlayer spacing in the graphite-like microcrystallites, with a more reduction for melamine modification of more nitrogen content. Moreover, urea or melamine modification could obviously promote the electron conductivity of the chars prepared below 700 ℃ but lessen a little for the char prepared above 700 ℃. Outstandingly, urea and melamine modification remarkably suppressed the development of pore structure of lignin-based chars, especially totally the formation of microporosity. Specifically, the surface area of the chars prepared from the unmodified lignin, urea-modified one and melamine-modified one have a big difference with the value of 524, 102 and 69 m2/g, respectively.

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Studies on Lignin-based Carbon Materials as Electrocatalysts of Fuel Cells Cathode Ⅳ: Preparation and Electrocatalytic Properties for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
Kainan JIN, Songlin ZUO, Youcai GUI, Baoshou SHEN, Shanshan WANG, Nannan CUI
2021, 41 (6):  27-35.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.004
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (6660KB) ( 35 )  

Lignin-based activated carbons were prepared by the consecutive procedure of lignin modification, carbonization and ammonia activation using enzymatic hydrolysis lignin as starting material, in terms of our serial investigations that have been conducted on pyrolysis of starting materials, surface chemistry and microstructure of lignin-derived chars. Nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electronic chemistry methods were employed to characterize the pore structure and surface chemistry of lignin-based activated carbons and to evaluate the catalytic performance as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction(ORR). The results showed that lignin-based activated carbons with good performance of electronically catalyzing ORR could be obtained through nitrogen-containing chemicals modification of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin followed by carbonization and ammonia activation. By combing the method of lignin modification with nitrogen-containing substances and ammonia activation, the pore structure and the concentration of nitrogen-containing groups including pyridine-like, pyrrole-like and quaternary-like species could be tuned and, as a result, benefit to regulate the electrocatalytic properties of lignin-based activated carbons. Using melamine-modified enzymatic hydrolysis lignin as starting material produced the lignin-based activated carbons with a comparable electrocatalytic performance with commercially available 20% Pt/C catalyst, which possess a surface areas of more than 1 300 m2/g, developed microporosity and mesoporisty, a nitrogen content of more than 6% and a high concentration of quaternary-like groups.

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Pyrolysis Behavior Analysis of Enzymolysis Lignin Based on TG-FTIR-MS Technology
Xinglong HOU, Xiaopeng JIAN, Wei XU, Qi GUO, Junli LIU
2021, 41 (6):  36-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.005
Abstract ( 14 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (5422KB) ( 19 )  

The thermogravimetric analysis of enzymolysis lignin(EL) and phosphoric acid impregnated enzymolysis(EL-P) lignin was carried out at constant heating speed and variable heating speed to simulate the preparation conditions of activated carbon and provide a theoretical basis for analysis. The constant heating speed thermogravimetric experiments found that the EL pyrolysis process mainly occurred at 300-360 ℃, the EL-P pyrolysis temperature was advanced, which proved that phosphoric acid would interact with EL at low temperature. Variable heating speed increased the pyrolysis reaction time of lignin. The main weight loss peaks in the constant-rate heating process of EL split into two weight loss peaks, and the pyrolysis of lignin was more complete. The residual amount of EL-P pyrolysis products was reduced from 57.42% at the constant heating speed to 39.93% at the variable weating speed. Compared with constant speed pyrolysis, variable speed pyrolysis added the constant temperature process, the final pyrolysis residue decreased, more substances were released as gas, which indicated that the pyrolysis reaction was more sufficient. It verified the necessity of holding a constant temperature for a period of time during the impregnation and activation stages of the activated carbon preparation process. The chemical analysis of the released components showed that the pyrolysis of ligin mainly included CO, CO2, CH4, methanol, propionaldehyde and aromatic compound and so on. After H3PO4 impregnation, the content of pyrolysis products of EL-P reduced and the components were roughly the same.

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Preparation of Boron and Nitrogen Co-doped Porous Carbon Derived from Sword Bean Shell and Its Electrochemical Performance
Lu LUO, Lingcong LUO, Jianping DENG, Tingting CHEN, Mizi FAN, Guanben DU, Weigang ZHAO
2021, 41 (6):  43-50.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.006
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (3155KB) ( 14 )  

The high surface area activated carbon was produced firstly by a simple two-step process of carbonization and KOH activation using forestry and agricultural residues sword bean shells as precursor. Furthermore, the N and B co-doped hierarchical porous carbon was prepared by hydrothermal post-treatment process using ammonium pentaborate tetrahydrate(NH4B5O8·4H2O) as nitrogen and boron source. The scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm and inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer were used to investigate the morphological, structural and chemical properties. Meanwhile, the electrochemical performance was tested by a three-electrode system. The results showed that the maximum specific surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume of the doped activated carbons could reach 2 859 m2/g, 1.34 cm3/g, and 0.99 cm3/g, respectively. The boron and nitrogen contents were 3.27% and 2.60%. The B and N co-doped activated carbon materials possessed excellent rate performance. Due to the synergistic effect of heteroatoms doping and also appropriate texture properties, the maximum specific capacitances were 369 and 240 F/g at the current density of 1 and 20 A/g, respectively.

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Preparation and Properties of Glycidyl Dehydroabietate Grafted Hydroxypropyl Chitosan
Xinxin YANG, Wei GUO, Zhaosheng CAI, Xujuan HUANG, Ting WANG, Zhengqing DING
2021, 41 (6):  51-56.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.007
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1272KB) ( 16 )  

Glycidyl dehydroabietate grafted hydroxypropyl chitosan (GDHA-g-HPCS) was obtained through the grafting reaction between hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCS) and glycidyl dehydroabietate (GDHA), and the GDHA-g-HPCS was cross-linked with sodium glycerophosphate as cross-linking agent. The structures of intermediates and products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and UV. The degree of substitution (DS) of HPCS and the grafting degree (DG) of the GDHA-g-HPCS were determined by elemental analysis. The surface activities of GDHA-g-HPCSs were investigated by surface tension method. The emulsifying abilities of GDHA-g-HPCSs were evaluated according to the stabilization time of emulsion composed of benzene and water with GDHA-g-HPCS as emulsifier. The gel formation time of cross-linked GDHA-g-HPCS was studied by inverted bottle method. When the DS of HPCS was 110.6% and the DG increased from 0.72% to 10.54%, the results showed the critical micelle concentration of GDHA-g-HPCSs decreased from 761.9 mg/L to 189.4 mg/L while the minimum surface tension (γmin) was maintained about 45 mN/m, and the emulsifying ability of GDHA-g-HPCS increased at first and then decreased with the increase of DG. When the 2 g/L GDHA-g-HPCS with the DG of 2.81% was utilized as emulsifier, the stabilization time of benzene-water emulsion was 18 063 s much better than that of the emulsion formed by stabilizer, such as monoglyceride, sucrose ester or AEO-9. When the 30 g/L aqueous solution of GDHA-g-HPCS cross-linked by GP, a gel could be formed in 26 minutes at 37 ℃, and could be converted into a sol again in 42 minutes at 4 ℃.

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Cross-linked Acrylic Emulsion and Its Application in Decorative Paper
Gaowei FU, Wanglong FENG, Dingkun WANG, Riqing CHEN, Chunpeng WANG
2021, 41 (6):  57-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.008
Abstract ( 20 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2966KB) ( 33 )  

The acrylic emulsion adhesive was prepared by semi-continuous seed emulsion method with using acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate(AAEM) as the crosslinking agent. The effects of AAEM amount on acrylic emulsion polymerization and its application as an adhesive for the decorative paper were investigated by infrared spectrometer, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer, scanning electron microscope, universal material testing machine, etc.. The IR results showed that AAEM was successfully participated in the emulsion copolymerization reaction. The particle size and viscosity of the acrylate emulsion modified by AAEM were below 90 nm and 21.0 mPa·s, respectively, and the monomer conversion rate was above 97% and the crosslinking degree of the film obtained from acrytic emulsion reached 90.61%. The modification of AAEM improved the crosslinking degree, thermal stability and water resistance of the obtained acrylate polymer. The impregnation test of the impregnated paper verified that the acrylic emulsion was successfully impregnated into the decorative papers, and greatly improved their mechanical properties, surface bonding strength, surface water resistance. The volatile content and pre-curing degree of the impregnated paper prepared by cross-linked acrylic emulsion, basically maintained at 12%-15% and 62%-65% when it was dipped; the tensile strength and elongation at break were up to 25 MPa and 26.9%, respectively, which were increased by 13 MPa and 25.1% while compared with that of the controlled sample. And the maximum contact angle was 113° and the surface bonding strength reached 0.826 MPa.

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Preparation of Core-shell SiO2@Rosin-based Polymer High Performance Liquid Preparation Column and Purification of Camptothecin
Fengmei YI, Wenbo XIE, Hao LI, Lei ZENG, Wen LI, Fuhou LEI
2021, 41 (6):  67-75.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.009
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (8544KB) ( 10 )  

The silanated silica gels was synthesised by modifing the activated spherical silica gels. Methacrylic acid was uesd as functional monomer, glycol maleated rosinate modified acrylic acid and azobisisobutyronitrile were used as crosslinking agent and initiator. They were mixed and evenly coated on the surface of the silanated silica gels, and then the core-shell SiO2@rosin-based polymer(SiO2@R) chromatography stationary phase was synthesised by coating-suspension free radical polymerization. The stationary phase was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, specific surface area and microporous adsorption analysis. The results showed that the rosin polymer was successfully bonded on the surface of silica gel, the core-shell SiO2@R stationary phase was successfully prepared, and the cytotoxicity of stationary phase was lower than that of commercial resin.The high performance liquid preparative chromatographic column(30 mm×250 mm, 10 μm) was prepared by wet packing. And its performance was tested. The results showed that the particle size of the theoretical plate number of the preparative column was 59 992, it had good liquidity and reusability. Methanol-water(volume ratio 95∶5) was used as mobile phase, the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm, the flow rate was 7 mL/min, the injection volume was 1.2 mL(the loading amount was about 1.728 mg), and the camptothecin(CPT) was separated and purified at room temperature. And the purification rate of CPT was 88.08%, compared with the crude extract, the purity increased by 45.78 percentage points.

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Interlayer-confinement of MnO Nanosheets in Sawdust-derived Carbon for Lithium Ion Anode Materials
Weihao TIAN, Zhixing HU, Xinhao GUO, Lizhi SHENG, Junyou SHI
2021, 41 (6):  76-82.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.010
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (4886KB) ( 23 )  

Poplar wood chips were used as raw materials, and the composites of poplar wood chip-based charcoal interlayer loaded with manganese oxide(YC/MnO) were prepared for lithium-ion battery anode by using the strongly oxidizing properties of concentrated sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate, followed by the high temperature annealing at 800 ℃. The microstructure and surface elements of YC/MnO were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption and desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical properties of the composites were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the manganese oxide nanosheets were uniformly inserted between poplar wood chip-derived carbon layers, and this tightly intercalated structure effectively reduced the specific surface area(70.3 m2/g) and charge transfer resistance(87.8 Ω), increased the average pore size(3.38 nm) and ion diffusion coefficient(2.26×10-8 cm2/s), and made this special composite structure still have a discharge specific capacity of 396.6 mAh/g at a current density of 2 A/g.When the current density was restored to 0.1 A/g, the discharge specific capacity could be restored to 696.4 mAh/g with good reversibility. The discharge specific capacity retention rates of 116.9% and 124.7% could still be maintained after 200 and 400 cycles at the current densities of 0.5 and 1.0 A/g, respectively, showing excellent cycling stability.

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KNO3-Loaded Mesoporous Carbon Catalyzed Transesterification Reaction of Cornus wilsoniana Oil
Qin WANG, Hongmei WANG, Aihua ZHANG, Zhihong XIAO, Changzhu LI
2021, 41 (6):  83-89.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.011
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (2176KB) ( 23 )  

Using sucrose as the carbon source and SBA-15 as the mesoporous template, the CMK-3 mesoporous carbon was prepared by the hard template method. And then, the mesoporous carbon-based solid base catalyst by loading KNO3 that could efficiently catalyze the production of biodiesel from Cornus wilsoniana oil was prepared by the impregnation method. Catalytic experiments were carried out to determine the catalytic activity of KNO3/CMK-3 and explore the best preparation conditions by comparing the transesterification rate of biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, CO2-TPD, etc.. The research results showed that the optimal loading conditions were calcination temperature 450 ℃, calcination time 2 h, loading amount of KNO3 7.5%. Under these conditions, the transesterification rate of biodiesel from C.wilsoniana oil could reach 95.95%. The catalyst 7.5%KNO3/CMK-3 was characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, CO2-TPD and so on, the results showed that the alkali content of the catalyst 7.5%KNO3/CMK-3 was 0.921 1 mmol/g, the surface area was 93.95 m2/g, the total pore volume was 0.114 6 cm3/g and the pore size was 4.879 nm. Before and after the modification, the alkaline active molecule was loaded on the meso-carbon and the rodstructure of carbon skeleton remained stable. The FT-IR and GC-MS analysis results showed that the mass fractions of methyl linolenate and methyl oleate in the obtained biodiesel were the highest, and were 45.97% and 32.08%.

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Effect of Pore Structure of Activated Carbon on Adsorption and Desorption of CS2
Xiaopeng JIAN, Xinglong HOU, Wei XU, Shicai LIU
2021, 41 (6):  90-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.012
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (685KB) ( 17 )  

The effects of the pore structure of five commercial activated carbons(AC-1, AC-2, AC-3, AC-4 and AC-5) on the adsorption/desorption performance of CS2 was studied. The pore structure of activated carbon was characterized by BET, and the effects of activated carbon on the adsorption/desorption performance of CS2 were studied by a dynamic device at room temperature. The results showed that the specific surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution of activated carbon were closely related to the adsorption/desorption performance of activated carbon on CS2. The effective adsorption pore size of activated carbon for CS2 was 3-5 times of the diameter of CS2 molecule. At the same time, it was found that the adsorption capacity of activated carbon for CS2 depended on the pore volume of the pore diameter distributed between 1.11-1.85 nm. The larger the pore volume was, the more volume of CS2 was. The desorption capacity of activated carbon for CS2 depended on the pore volume of the pore diameter distributed between 2.59-3.33 nm. The larger the pore volume was, the higher performance of activated carbon for CS2 was.

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Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Lignin Nanoparticles and Its Reaction Kinetics Analysis
Jie TIAN, Rui LOU, Xiangyu XUE, Hong ZHANG, Shubin WU, Huimin XU
2021, 41 (6):  97-104.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.013
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1786KB) ( 15 )  

DES-lignin was extracted from pine feedstock by using deep eutectic solvents(DES) at treatment temperatures of 100, 130, and 150 ℃, and the resultant DES-lignin samples with nano scale were labeled as L100, L130, and L150, respectively. The yields and elemental compositions of DES-lignin were determined, and the thermal degradation characteristics of nanoscale DES-lignin were studied by fast pyrolysis and thermogravimetric analysis(TGA). The results showed that the yields of L100, L130 and L150 were 33.53%, 81.02% and 82.62%, respectively, along with lower H/C molar ratio. DES treatment temperatures of pine wood had significant effect on the thermal degradation properties of lignin nanoparticles. With the increment of DES treatment temperature, the yields of biochar derived from DES-lignin pyrolysis gradually increased, and biochar obtained by fast pyrolysis at 700 ℃ had great high calorific value(30.97-31.96 MJ/kg) and homogeneous mesoporous. Besides, TG analysis indicated that the intense pyrolysis reaction of DES-lignin took place mainly ranged from the temperature of 200 to 500 ℃, the peak temperatures of the maximum weight loss rate occurred around 265 and 385 ℃, respectively. In addition, non-isothermal Coats-Redfern integration method was used to fit the reaction kinetics of DES-lignin pyrolysis, which demonstrated that DES-lignin pyrolysis was a secondary kinetic reaction in the main reaction temperature zone(200-450 ℃), and the obtained activation energy of L100, L130 and L150 pyrolysis ranged 51.52-52.13 kJ/mol during temperature from 200 to 300 ℃ as well as 32.65-49.25 kJ/mol during temperature from 330 to 450 ℃.

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Research Progress on Nanocellulose and Its Use in Lithium Batteries
Ying WANG, Chunhui MA, Jin ZHOU, Mengyang LI, Jinquan YUE
2021, 41 (6):  105-116.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.014
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (4470KB) ( 51 )  

As a natural material with good biocompatibility and biodegradability, nano-cellulose has unique structure and excellent mechanical properties. It has been widely used in the construction of electrochemical energy storage system of lithium-ion batteries(LIBs), and has made significant progress. This thesis provided an overview of the preparation and modification methods of cellulose nanofibrils(CNF), cellulose nanocrystals(CNC) and bacterial cellulose(BC) in the context of the application of advanced energy storage devices LIBs and green materials nanocellulose, and reviewed the research progress on the application of nanocellulose in the field of LIBs. It was mainly divided into three aspects: first, nanocellulose-based flexible LIBs electrodes; second, carbon materials derived from nano cellulose as electrodes; third, nano cellulose derived battery separator. Finally, some problems in this field were analyzed, summarized and prospected.

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Research Progress in High-value Utilization of Furfural Residue
Mengyu LI, Peng YANG, Chun CHANG, Zhiyong CHEN, Jiande SONG
2021, 41 (6):  117-126.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.015
Abstract ( 23 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (706KB) ( 26 )  

Furfural residue is the biomass waste in the process of furfural industrial production. In this paper, the sources and composition characteristics of furfural residue are firstly introduced. On this basis, the researches of furfural residue in the fields of biomass energy, composite materials, fine chemicals and agricultural supplies are reviewed, and the research progress in various application fields is analyzed and summarized. Finally, according to the characteristics of furfural residue, the existing problems and challenges in the application of furfural residue are pointed out and the high-value utilization of furfural residue are also prospected.

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Research Progress on Microwave-assisted Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Oil for Hydrocarbon-rich Bio-oil
Qiuhao WU, Yunpu WANG, Shumei ZHANG, Yuan ZENG, Yuhuan LIU, Roger RUAN
2021, 41 (6):  127-138.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.0253-2417.2021.06.016
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (3644KB) ( 11 )  

Combined with the the microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology, microwave heating principle and characteristics were briefly described, and the effects of the characteristics of raw material waste oil and microwave absorbers on the product distribution and composition were discussed. Zeolite catalyst and metal oxide catalysts used in waste oil pyrolysis were introduced. The preparation process of microwave driven catalyst and the establishment of microwave tandem system and its application in microwave pyrolysis of waste oil were reviewed. The application of microwave heating and electrical heating in catalytic system were also discussed. The challenges and future research direction of microwave-assisted fast pyrolysis of waste oil for hydrocarbon-rich bio-oil were put forward, which provided a new idea for solving the problems such as the coking and deactivation of catalysts and the complex composition of bio-oil in the process of waste oil pyrolysis.

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